Prostate growth and inflammation
ABSTRACT There is emerging evidence that prostatic inflammation may contribute to prostate growth either in terms of hyperplastic (BPH) or neoplastic (PC) changes. Inflammation is thought to incite carcinogenesis by causing cell and genome damage, promoting cellular turnover.
We reviewed our personal experience and the international recent literature on the clinical data supporting a role of inflammation on BPH and PC growth and progression.
BPH: Among those patients with self-reported prostatitis, 57% had a history of BPH. MTOPS study showed that men with inflammation had a significantly higher risk of BPH progression and acute urinary retention. We showed that the use of a COX-2 inhibitor in combination with a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor could increase the apoptotic index in BPH tissue. Prostate cancer: A PCR-based analysis of bacterial colonization in PC specimens and normal prostate tissue showed highly suggestive correlation of bacterial colonization and chronic inflammation with a diagnosis of PC. Evidence from genetic studies support the hypothesis that prostate inflammation may be a cause of prostate cancer. De Marzo proposed that proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) is a precursor to PIN and cancer.
The concept that inflammation can promote prostate growth either in terms of BPH and PC risk remains highly suggestive.
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ABSTRACT: Background:Transcription factor EGR3 (Early Growth Response 3) is a little-studied member of the EGR family that is highly expressed in human prostate tumours compared with normal tissue. Its function in prostate cancer, however, is unknown.Methods:Stable shRNA silencing was achieved in naturally overexpressing prostate cancer cells, followed by Affymetrix expression analysis. Fold changes of ⩾2 and ⩽-2 were considered valid and t-tests P-values of ⩽0.01 were considered statistically significant. Potential EGR3 target genes were validated by real-time qPCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and gain-of-function experiments. Promoter analysis confirmed the presence of consensus binding sites in the promoters of target genes.Results:Early Growth Response 3 regulates the expression of ∼330 genes, 35% of which are involved in immune responses and inflammatory processes, and 15% crosstalk with the NF-κB signalling pathway. In particular, EGR3 induces the expression of over 50 secreted cytokines, growth factors, and matrix remodelling factors. Two interleukins of great relevance to prostate cancer, IL6 and IL8, were further validated as EGR3 target genes: both promoters contain EGR consensus binding sites and are pulled down in intact cells by EGR3 chromatin immunoprecipitation. Silencing of EGR3 decreased IL6 and IL8 expression, whereas overexpression of EGR3 in nontransformed cells induced IL6 and IL8 expression.Conclusions:Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in prostate cancer and elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and IL6, in particular, contributes to disease progression and to the onset of castration resistance. It is shown for the first time that EGR3 is involved in the upregulation of both IL6 and IL8. Together with our previous observation that EGR3 is highly expressed in prostate tumours compared with normal tissue and strongly correlates with IL6 and IL8 expression in clinical samples, the present study suggests that EGR3 promotes excessive production of IL6 and IL8 observed during the progression of prostate cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 29 January 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.622 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 01/2015; 112(4). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.622 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High-Fat Diet (HFD) has emerged as an important risk factor not only for obesity and diabetes but also for urological disorders. Recent research provides ample evidence that HFD is a putative cause for prostatic diseases including prostate cancer. The mechanisms whereby these diseases develop in the prostate have not been fully elucidated. In this review we discuss signaling pathways intricately involved in HFD-induced prostate disease. We performed a search through PUBMED using key words " high fat diet " and " prostate " . Our data and perspectives are included in this review along with research performed by various other groups.HFD is positively associated with an increased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. HFD induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the prostate gland, and these adverse influences transform it from a normal to a diseased state. Studies demonstrate that HFD accelerates the generation of reactive oxygen species by driving the NADPH oxidase system, exacerbating oxidative stress in the prostate. HFD also causes a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and gene products through activation of two important signaling pathways: the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-kB). Both these pathways function as transcription factors required for regulating genes involved in proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion and inflammation. The crosstalk between these two pathways enhances their regulatory function. Through its influences on the NF-kB and Stat-3 signaling pathways, it appears likely that HFD increases the risk of development of BPH and prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects many men after the age of 50 years. Inflammation and oxidative stress along with apoptotic changes are thought to play an important role in the pathology of BPH. Pomegranate contains a variety of polyphenolic compounds that have been studied in a medley of diseases for their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. Therefore, this study examined the effect of Pomegranate Fruit Extract (PFE) on the development of BPH using a testosterone-induced BPH model in rats. METHODS: A total of 48 rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight, one group served as the control, BPH was induced by testosterone 3 mg/kg S.C. daily in four groups, three of them received PFE by oral gavage daily at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg respectively, while one group received PFE at a dose of 50 mg/kg without induction of BPH. RESULTS: PFE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was the most effective in decreasing testosterone-induced increase in prostate weight, prostate weight/body weight ratio, and PAP levels by 30.8%, 55%, and 68% respectively and in preventing the accompanying histological changes. In the BPH model, testosterone significantly decreased GSH, SOD, and CAT to 0.45, 0.64, and 0.88 of the control group values respectively, and significantly increased MDA by >6-fold. In combination with testosterone, PFE dosed at 100 mg/kg significantly increased GSH, SOD, and CAT to 0.83, 0.92, and 0.93 of the control group values respectively, whereas MDA was significantly decreased by 72% compared with the testosterone treated group. In addition to this, at the range of doses studied, PFE lowered COX-II, iNOS, Ki-67 expression, and increased apoptotic index. CONCLUSION: The current findings elucidate the effectiveness of PFE in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. This could be attributed, at least partly, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic properties.The Prostate 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/pros.22951 · 3.57 Impact Factor