In vitro cytotoxic potential of Polyalthia longifolia on human cancer cell lines and induction of apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HL-60 cells.
ABSTRACT Polyalthia longifolia is a lofty evergreen tree found in India and Sri Lanka. We are reporting first time the anticancer potential of P. longifolia leaves extract (A001) and its chloroform fraction (F002). Both inhibited cell proliferation of various human cancer cell lines in which colon cancer cells SW-620 showed maximum inhibition with IC(50) value 6.1 microg/ml. Furthermore, F002 induce apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells as measured by several biological end points. F002 induce apoptotic bodies formation, DNA ladder, enhanced annexin-V-FITC binding of the cells, increased sub-G(0) DNA fraction, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(mt)), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) in HL-60 cells. All the above parameters revealed that F002-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HL-60 cells.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION Reverse Pharmacology was proposed and initiated by Vaidya. (1) Reverse Pharmacology is possible only in those countries with pluralistic healthcare and where robust clinical and laboratory documentation of novel human, pharmacodynamic effects are possible by inter-system collaborative teamwork. (2) The scope of Reverse Pharmacology is to understand the mechanisms of action at multiple levels of biological organization and to optimise safety, efficacy and acceptability of the leads in natural products, based on relevant science. (3) Lindane, the γ-isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, is a widely used organochlorine pesticide. The application of lindane in soil, foliar, and seed treatment for a large variety of fruit and vegetable crops, its application on livestock, pets, and on agricultural premises, in pharmaceutical preparations, as well as in public health pest control, could lead to the exposure of humans to low concentrations of this compound. Various experiments were carried out in order to assess the toxicity and carcinogenicity of lindane . (4, 5) Lindane HCH intoxication has been associated with male reproductive toxicity in experimental animals and lindane may have the potential to produce adverse effects on fertility in men (6) (Kamirin, 1997) as the lindane has the potential of passing through the testis. (7) Lindane had also reported to be inducing detrimental effects on various other tissues. (8, 9) Reversal of the reproductive toxicology has already been using vitamin E, D (10) and carotene (11) respectively. Treatment with plant extract Hypericum perforatum had shown to have the reproductive protective role in metal ions damaged reproductive organs in male mice. (12) The antioxidant activities of reproductive parts were higher than those of the vegetative organs, with the pods having highest total phenolic, proanthocyanidin, and flavonoid contents and antioxidant potentials of Cassia fistula L. (13) However any of the extract had not reported to have proper sperm function and normal function of organs and maturation of the sperm. The leaves of Murraya koenigii are as an herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Their properties include much value as an antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-hypercholesterolemic. (14) Polyalthia longifolia had also reported to have cytotoxic property, (15-18) Anti-inflammatory properties, (19) Anti-microbial properties, (20) , Hypoglycemic properties. (21) Trigonella foenum-graecum Fenugreek is a plant in the family Fabaceae has shown many biological prospectuses predominantly includes hypoglycaemic (22-25) and cytotoxic properties. (26-28) None of the above three plants individually or in combination has been reported to have protective reproductive mechanism. Hence the present study was conducted to understand the toxicological effect of lindane and effect of methanolic extract on the leaves of Murraya koenigii and Polyalthia longifolia and seeds of Trigonella foenum-graceum on the reproductive organs of lindane treated organs.
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ABSTRACT: Lindane is reported have to detrimental effects on different tissues. In the present study the 90 male Albino Swiss rats were treated lindane at a dosage of 250ppm/kg body weight/day. Following the lindane treatment, shrinkage in the testis was observed but there was no physiological difference in complete body mass. Sperm production was also hampered and the generated sperms were also damaged. Profound histological changes were also observed in the testis and degeneration of the Leydig cells was noted along with reduction in serum testosterone levels. Oxidative stress was also observed to ascent during the lindane treatment course revealing significant generation of ROS. Following the plant extract treatment a significant recovery was observed. The fertility of the rats was restored whereas the functioning of the reproductive organs and accessory sex organs were also apt almost comparable to that of the control group. ROS generation was also observed to decline following the plant extract treatment.Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology. 01/2011; 2:59-65.
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ABSTRACT: The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μ g/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:915436.