Depressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPargamma) is indicative of severe pulmonary sarcoidosis: possible involvement of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma).
ABSTRACT Recent evidence suggests that the transcription factor, PPARgamma, is an important negative regulator of inflammation. Because studies of murine adipocytes and macrophages implicate IFN-gamma, a key mediator of granuloma formation in sarcoidosis, as a PPARgamma antagonist, we investigated the relationship between PPARgamma and IFN-gamma in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls.
BAL cells were analyzed for PPARgamma and IFN-gamma mRNA expression by quantitative PCR and for PPARgamma protein by immunocytochemistry and western blotting.
In sarcoidosis patients with severe, treatment-requiring disease, IFN-gamma was strikingly elevated and PPARgamma gene expression was deficient. In contrast, PPARgamma expression of non-severe patients was comparable to control but was still accompanied by increased IFN-gamma. By confocal microscopy, nuclear PPARgamma protein was detectable in alveolar macrophages from non-severe patients unlike previous observations of severe patients. In vitro exposure of BAL cells or purified alveolar macrophages to IFN-gamma resulted in dose-dependent repression of PPARgamma mRNA in both sarcoidosis and controls. IFN-gamma treatment also reduced PPARgamma protein in BAL lysates and nuclear PPARgamma content in control alveolar macrophages, resulting in a diffuse cytoplasmic PPARgamma distribution similar to that observed in severe sarcoidosis.
These novel results indicate that IFN-gamma represses PPARgamma in human alveolar macrophages but that in sarcoidosis, PPARgamma rather than IFN-gamma levels correlate best with disease severity. Data also emphasize the complex nature of PPARgamma restorative mechanisms in alveolar macrophages exposed to an inflammatory environment containing IFN-gamma -- a potential PPARgamma antagonist.
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ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease affecting in particular the lungs. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important regulatory roles in inflammation. The aim of this study was to gain more insight about the expression of all three PPARs (α, β/δ and γ) in sarcoidosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and peripheral blood cells were obtained from healthy controls (HC) and sarcoidosis patients with Löfgren's syndrome (LS) and without Löfgren's syndrome (non-LS). PPARs mRNA expression was analyzed in total BAL cells and in FACS (Fluorescence-activated cell sorting) sorted alveolar macrophages (AM) and CD4(+) T cells respectively by comparative RT-PCR. PPARs protein expression was analyzed in AM, and in BAL and blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells by flow cytometry. In BAL CD4(+) T cells, we noticed a significantly lower PPARα mRNA expression in sarcoidosis patients compared with HC. In non-LS patients, a significantly lower PPARα protein expression in BAL CD4(+) T cells was detected as compared with LS patients. In peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells, non-LS patients had a significantly lower expression of PPARα and PPARγ compared with LS patients. The lower protein expression of PPARα and PPARγ could contribute to the persistent T-cell driven inflammation noted especially in non-resolving sarcoidosis, common in non-LS patients.Journal of Inflammation 12/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12950-015-0071-6 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Although granulomatous inflammation is a central feature of many disease processes, cellular mechanisms of granuloma formation and persistence are poorly understood. Carbon nanoparticles, which can be products of manufacture or the environment, have been associated with granulomatous disease. This paper utilizes a previously described carbon nanoparticle granuloma model to address the issue of whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a nuclear transcription factor and negative regulator of inflammatory cytokines might play a role in granulomatous lung disease. PPARγ is constitutively expressed in alveolar macrophages from healthy individuals but is depressed in alveolar macrophages of patients with sarcoidosis, a prototypical granulomatous disease. Our previous study of macrophage-specific PPARγ KO mice had revealed an intrinsically inflammatory pulmonary environment with an elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines profile as compared to wild-type mice. Based on such observations we hypothesized that PPARγ expression would be repressed in alveolar macrophages from animals bearing granulomas induced by MWCNT instillation. Methods Wild-type C57Bl/6 and macrophage-specific PPARγ KO mice received oropharyngeal instillations of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (100 μg). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, BAL fluids, and lung tissues were obtained 60 days post-instillation for analysis of granuloma histology and pro-inflammatory cytokines (osteopontin, CCL2, and interferon gamma [IFN-γ] mRNA and protein expression. Results In wild-type mice, alveolar macrophage PPARγ expression and activity were significantly reduced in granuloma-bearing animals 60 days after MWCNT instillation. In macrophage-specific PPARγ KO mice, granuloma formation was more extensive than in wild-type at 60 days after MWCNT instillation. PPARγ KO mice also demonstrated elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in lung tissue, laser-microdissected lung granulomas, and BAL cells/fluids, at 60 days post MWCNT exposure. Conclusions Overall, data indicate that PPARγ deficiency promotes inflammation and granuloma formation, suggesting that PPARγ functions as a negative regulator of chronic granulomatous inflammation.Respiratory research 01/2013; 14(1):7. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-14-7 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis, a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown cause, has been linked to several environmental risk factors, among which are some that may favor carbon nanotube formation. Using gene array data, we initially observed that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from sarcoidosis patients displayed elevated mRNA of the transcription factor, Twist1, among many M1-associated genes compared to healthy controls. Based on this observation we hypothesized that Twist1 mRNA and protein expression might become elevated in alveolar macrophages from animals bearing granulomas induced by carbon nanotube instillation. To address this hypothesis, wild-type and macrophage-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) knock out mice were given oropharyngeal instillation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). BAL cells obtained 60 days later exhibited significantly elevated Twist1 mRNA expression in granuloma-bearing wild-type or PPARγ knock out alveolar macrophages compared to sham controls. Overall, Twist1 expression levels in PPARγ knock out mice were higher than those of wild-type. Concurrently, BAL cells obtained from sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls validated gene array data: qPCR and protein analysis showed significantly elevated Twist1 in sarcoidosis compared to healthy controls. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophages from healthy controls indicated that Twist1 was inducible by classical (M1) macrophage activation stimuli (LPS, TNFα) but not by IL-4, an inducer of alternative (M2) macrophage activation. Findings suggest that Twist1 represents a PPARγ-sensitive alveolar macrophage M1 biomarker which is induced by inflammatory granulomatous disease in the MWCNT model and in human sarcoidosis.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2013; 14(12):23858-71. DOI:10.3390/ijms141223858 · 2.34 Impact Factor