Depressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPargamma) is indicative of severe pulmonary sarcoidosis: possible involvement of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma).
ABSTRACT Recent evidence suggests that the transcription factor, PPARgamma, is an important negative regulator of inflammation. Because studies of murine adipocytes and macrophages implicate IFN-gamma, a key mediator of granuloma formation in sarcoidosis, as a PPARgamma antagonist, we investigated the relationship between PPARgamma and IFN-gamma in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls.
BAL cells were analyzed for PPARgamma and IFN-gamma mRNA expression by quantitative PCR and for PPARgamma protein by immunocytochemistry and western blotting.
In sarcoidosis patients with severe, treatment-requiring disease, IFN-gamma was strikingly elevated and PPARgamma gene expression was deficient. In contrast, PPARgamma expression of non-severe patients was comparable to control but was still accompanied by increased IFN-gamma. By confocal microscopy, nuclear PPARgamma protein was detectable in alveolar macrophages from non-severe patients unlike previous observations of severe patients. In vitro exposure of BAL cells or purified alveolar macrophages to IFN-gamma resulted in dose-dependent repression of PPARgamma mRNA in both sarcoidosis and controls. IFN-gamma treatment also reduced PPARgamma protein in BAL lysates and nuclear PPARgamma content in control alveolar macrophages, resulting in a diffuse cytoplasmic PPARgamma distribution similar to that observed in severe sarcoidosis.
These novel results indicate that IFN-gamma represses PPARgamma in human alveolar macrophages but that in sarcoidosis, PPARgamma rather than IFN-gamma levels correlate best with disease severity. Data also emphasize the complex nature of PPARgamma restorative mechanisms in alveolar macrophages exposed to an inflammatory environment containing IFN-gamma -- a potential PPARgamma antagonist.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Dysfunctional immune responses characterize sarcoidosis, but the status of cathelicidin, a potent immunoregulatory and antimicrobial molecule, has not been established in clinical disease activity. Methods: Alveolar macrophage cathelicidin expression was determined in biopsy-proven sarcoidosis patients classified clinically as 'severe' (requiring systemic treatment) or 'non-severe' (never requiring treatment). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls were analyzed for mRNA expression of cathelicidin, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the VDR coactivator steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC3) by quantitative PCR. Cathelicidin-derived peptide LL-37 was determined by immunocytochemistry. Serum calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D2; vitD2) and calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; vitD3) were quantified. Results: The results indicated reduced BAL cell expression of cathelicidin and SRC3 in severe but not non-severe sarcoidosis compared to controls. Serum levels of biologically active vitD3 in both severe and non-severe patients were within the control range even though vitD2 levels in both groups were below the recommended level (30 ng/ml). Sarcoidosis and control alveolar macrophages were studied in vitro to determine cathelicidin responses to vitD3 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a vitD3 antagonist elevated in active sarcoidosis. Alveolar macrophage cathelicidin was stimulated by vitD3 but repressed by TNFα, which also repressed SRC3. Conclusions: These findings suggest that TNFα-mediated repression of SRC3 contributes to alveolar macrophage cathelicidin deficiency in severe sarcoidosis despite healthy vitD3 levels. Deficiency of cathelicidin, a multifunctional regulator of immune cells and proinflammatory cytokines, may impede resolution of inflammation in the lungs of patients with severe sarcoidosis.Journal of Innate Immunity 07/2012; 4(5-6):569-78. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although granulomatous inflammation is a central feature of many disease processes, cellular mechanisms of granuloma formation and persistence are poorly understood. Carbon nanoparticles, which can be products of manufacture or the environment, have been associated with granulomatous disease. This paper utilizes a previously described carbon nanoparticle granuloma model to address the issue of whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear transcription factor and negative regulator of inflammatory cytokines might play a role in granulomatous lung disease. PPARgamma is constitutively expressed in alveolar macrophages from healthy individuals but is depressed in alveolar macrophages of patients with sarcoidosis, a prototypical granulomatous disease. Our previous study of macrophage-specific PPARgamma KO mice had revealed an intrinsically inflammatory pulmonary environment with an elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines profile as compared to wild-type mice. Based on such observations we hypothesized that PPARgamma expression would be repressed in alveolar macrophages from animals bearing granulomas induced by MWCNT instillation. METHODS: Wild-type C57Bl/6 and macrophage-specific PPARgamma KO mice received oropharyngeal instillations of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (100 mug). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, BAL fluids, and lung tissues were obtained 60 days post-instillation for analysis of granuloma histology and pro-inflammatory cytokines (osteopontin, CCL2, and interferon gamma [IFN-gamma] mRNA and protein expression. RESULTS: In wild-type mice, alveolar macrophage PPARgamma expression and activity were significantly reduced in granuloma-bearing animals 60 days after MWCNT instillation. In macrophage-specific PPARgamma KO mice, granuloma formation was more extensive than in wild-type at 60 days after MWCNT instillation. PPARgamma KO mice also demonstrated elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in lung tissue, laser-microdissected lung granulomas, and BAL cells/fluids, at 60 days post MWCNT exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, data indicate that PPARgamma deficiency promotes inflammation and granuloma formation, suggesting that PPARgamma functions as a negative regulator of chronic granulomatous inflammation.Respiratory research 01/2013; 14(1):7. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis, a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown cause, has been linked to several environmental risk factors, among which are some that may favor carbon nanotube formation. Using gene array data, we initially observed that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from sarcoidosis patients displayed elevated mRNA of the transcription factor, Twist1, among many M1-associated genes compared to healthy controls. Based on this observation we hypothesized that Twist1 mRNA and protein expression might become elevated in alveolar macrophages from animals bearing granulomas induced by carbon nanotube instillation. To address this hypothesis, wild-type and macrophage-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) knock out mice were given oropharyngeal instillation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). BAL cells obtained 60 days later exhibited significantly elevated Twist1 mRNA expression in granuloma-bearing wild-type or PPARγ knock out alveolar macrophages compared to sham controls. Overall, Twist1 expression levels in PPARγ knock out mice were higher than those of wild-type. Concurrently, BAL cells obtained from sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls validated gene array data: qPCR and protein analysis showed significantly elevated Twist1 in sarcoidosis compared to healthy controls. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophages from healthy controls indicated that Twist1 was inducible by classical (M1) macrophage activation stimuli (LPS, TNFα) but not by IL-4, an inducer of alternative (M2) macrophage activation. Findings suggest that Twist1 represents a PPARγ-sensitive alveolar macrophage M1 biomarker which is induced by inflammatory granulomatous disease in the MWCNT model and in human sarcoidosis.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(12):23858-71. · 2.46 Impact Factor