Contribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta to the effects of estradiol in the brain
ABSTRACT Clinical and experimental studies show a modulatory role of estrogens in the brain and suggest their beneficial action in mental and neurodegenerative diseases. The estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta are present in the brain and their targeting could bring selectivity and reduced risk of cancer. Implication of ERs in the effect of estradiol on dopamine, opiate and glutamate neurotransmission is reviewed. The ERalpha agonist, PPT, is shown as estradiol to modulate hippocampal NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors in cortex and striatum of ovariectomized rats whereas the ERbeta agonist DPN is inactive. Striatal DPN activity suggests implication of ERbeta in estradiol modulation of D2 receptors and transporters in ovariectomized rats and is supported by the lack of effect of estradiol in ERbeta knockout (ERKObeta) mice. Both ERalpha and ERbeta agonists modulate striatal preproenkephalin (PPE) gene expression in ovariectomized rats. In male mice PPT protects against MPTP toxicity to striatal dopamine; this implicates Akt/GSK3beta signaling and the apoptotic regulators Bcl2 and Bad. This suggests a role for ERalpha in striatal dopamine neuroprotection. ERKOalpha mice are more susceptible to MPTP toxicity and not protected by estradiol; differences in ERKObeta mice are subtler. These results suggest therapeutic potential for the brain of ER specific agonists.
SourceAvailable from: Amandine Grimm[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The brain has high energy requirements to maintain neuronal activity. Consequently impaired mitochondrial function will lead to disease. Normal aging is associated with several alterations in neurosteroid production and secretion. Decreases in neurosteroid levels might contribute to brain aging and loss of important nervous functions, such as memory. Up to now, extensive studies only focused on estradiol as a promising neurosteroid compound that is able to ameliorate cellular bioenergetics, while the effects of other steroids on brain mitochondria are poorly understood or not investigated at all. Thus, we aimed to characterize the bioenergetic modulating profile of a panel of seven structurally diverse neurosteroids (progesterone, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, 3α-androstanediol, DHEA and allopregnanolone), known to be involved in brain function regulation. Of note, most of the steroids tested were able to improve bioenergetic activity in neuronal cells by increasing ATP levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and basal mitochondrial respiration. In parallel, they modulated redox homeostasis by increasing antioxidant activity, probably as a compensatory mechanism to a slight enhancement of ROS which might result from the rise in oxygen consumption. Thereby, neurosteroids appeared to act via their corresponding receptors and exhibited specific bioenergetic profiles. Taken together, our results indicate that the ability to boost mitochondria is not unique to estradiol, but seems to be a rather common mechanism of different steroids in the brain. Thus, neurosteroids may act upon neuronal bioenergetics in a delicate balance and an age-related steroid disturbance might be involved in mitochondrial dysfunction underlying neurodegenerative disorders.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 09/2014; 1842(12). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.09.013 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Steroid hormones intervene in the structural and functional regulation of neuronal processes during development and thus determine brain differentiation. The effects of estrogens are mediated by two transcription factors, namely estrogen receptor α (ER-α) and estrogen receptor β (ER-β), that regulate the expression of target genes through their binding to specific DNA target sequences. We describe the mRNA expression of ER-α and ER-β in the hypothalamus of developing male and female bovines as revealed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the distribution of the two ERs in hypothalamic sections of all fetal stages as shown by immunohistochemistry. The expression profiles of the mRNAs of both ERs are mutually correlated throughout the gestation period, and their levels increase significantly in the last stages of gestation. No sexual differences in the mRNA expression of either ER-α or ER-β have been found in our fetal specimens. The use of specific antisera against ER-α and ER-β has allowed us to characterize and confirm the distribution of these receptors in the hypothalami of all fetal stages considered. Our results offer detailed information concerning the distribution of ER-α and ER-β in the developing bovine hypothalamus and provide additional insights into the processes involved in the hypothalamic development of a mammal with a long gestation and a highly gyrencephalic brain.Cell and Tissue Research 11/2014; 359(2). DOI:10.1007/s00441-014-2023-5 · 3.33 Impact Factor