Contribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta to the effects of estradiol in the brain.
ABSTRACT Clinical and experimental studies show a modulatory role of estrogens in the brain and suggest their beneficial action in mental and neurodegenerative diseases. The estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta are present in the brain and their targeting could bring selectivity and reduced risk of cancer. Implication of ERs in the effect of estradiol on dopamine, opiate and glutamate neurotransmission is reviewed. The ERalpha agonist, PPT, is shown as estradiol to modulate hippocampal NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors in cortex and striatum of ovariectomized rats whereas the ERbeta agonist DPN is inactive. Striatal DPN activity suggests implication of ERbeta in estradiol modulation of D2 receptors and transporters in ovariectomized rats and is supported by the lack of effect of estradiol in ERbeta knockout (ERKObeta) mice. Both ERalpha and ERbeta agonists modulate striatal preproenkephalin (PPE) gene expression in ovariectomized rats. In male mice PPT protects against MPTP toxicity to striatal dopamine; this implicates Akt/GSK3beta signaling and the apoptotic regulators Bcl2 and Bad. This suggests a role for ERalpha in striatal dopamine neuroprotection. ERKOalpha mice are more susceptible to MPTP toxicity and not protected by estradiol; differences in ERKObeta mice are subtler. These results suggest therapeutic potential for the brain of ER specific agonists.
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ABSTRACT: Estrogenic and androgenic neurosteroids can rapidly modulate synaptic plasticity in the brain through interaction with membrane receptors for estrogens (ERs) and androgens (ARs). We used electrophysiological recordings in slices of young and adolescent male rats to explore the influence of sex neurosteroids on synaptic plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal region, by blocking ARs or ERs during induction of long-term depression (LTD) and depotentiation (DP) by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and long-term potentiation (LTP) by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). We found that LTD and DP depend on ARs, while LTP on ERs in both age groups. Accordingly, the AR blocker flutamide affected induction of LTD reverting it into LTP, and prevented DP, while having no effect on HFS-dependent LTP. Conversely, ER blockade with ICI 182,780 (ICI) markedly reduced LTP, but did not influence LTD and DP. However, the receptor blockade did not affect the maintenance of either LTD or LTP. Moreover, we found that similar to LTP and LTD induced in control condition, the LTP unveiled by flutamide during LFS and residual LTP induced by HFS under ICI depended on N-methyl-d aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation. Furthermore, as the synaptic paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) was not affected by either AR or ER blockade, we suggest that sex neurosteroids act primarily at a postsynaptic level. This study demonstrates for the first time the crucial role of estrogenic and androgenic neurosteroids in determining the sign of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in male rat and the activity-dependent recruitment of androgenic and estrogenic pathways leading to LTD and LTP, respectively.Physiological reports. 12/2013; 1(7):e00185.
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ABSTRACT: During the oestrus cycle, varying spine synapse density correlates positively with varying local synthesis of oestradiol in the hippocampus. In this context, the roles of the oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes ERα and β are not fully understood. In this study, we used neonatal hippocampal slice cultures from female rats, as these cultures synthesize oestradiol, express both receptor subtypes, and inhibition of estradiol synthesis in these cultures results in spine synapse loss. Using electron microscopy we tested the effects on spine synapse density in response to agonists of both oestrogen receptors (ER) α and β. Application of agonists to the cultures had no effect. After inhibition of oestradiol synthesis, however, agonists of ERα induced spine synapse formation, whereas ERβ agonists led to a reduction in spine synapse density in the CA1 region of these cultures. Consistently, upregulation of ERβ in the hippocampus of adult female aromatase-deficient mice is paralleled by hippocampus-specific spine synapse loss in this mutant. Finally, we found an increase in spine synapses in the adult female ERβ knock-out mouse but no effect in the adult female ERα knock-out mouse. Our data suggest antagonistic roles of ERβ and ERα in spine synapse formation in the female hippocampus, which may contribute to oestrus cyclicity of spine synapse density in the hippocampus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neuroendocrinology 04/2014; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The brain has high energy requirements to maintain neuronal activity. Consequently impaired mitochondrial function will lead to disease. Normal aging is associated with several alterations in neurosteroid production and secretion. Decreases in neurosteroid levels might contribute to brain aging and loss of important nervous functions, such as memory. Up to now, extensive studies only focused on estradiol as a promising neurosteroid compound that is able to ameliorate cellular bioenergetics, while the effects of other steroids on brain mitochondria are poorly understood or not investigated at all. Thus, we aimed to characterize the bioenergetic modulating profile of a panel of seven structurally diverse neurosteroids (progesterone, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, 3α-androstanediol, DHEA and allopregnanolone), known to be involved in brain function regulation. Of note, most of the steroids tested were able to improve bioenergetic activity in neuronal cells by increasing ATP levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and basal mitochondrial respiration. In parallel, they modulated redox homeostasis by increasing antioxidant activity, probably as a compensatory mechanism to a slight enhancement of ROS which might result from the rise in oxygen consumption. Thereby, neurosteroids appeared to act via their corresponding receptors and exhibited specific bioenergetic profiles. Taken together, our results indicate that the ability to boost mitochondria is not unique to estradiol, but seems to be a rather common mechanism of different steroids in the brain. Thus, neurosteroids may act upon neuronal bioenergetics in a delicate balance and an age-related steroid disturbance might be involved in mitochondrial dysfunction underlying neurodegenerative disorders.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 09/2014; · 5.09 Impact Factor