Sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine in Warsaw (Poland).

Department of Dermatology, Warsaw Medical School, ul. Koszykowa 82a, 02-008 Warsaw, Poland.
Contact Dermatitis (Impact Factor: 3.62). 12/2007; 57(5):347-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01135.x
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Henna, the dried and powdered leaf of Lawsonia inermis, is widely used as a dye for the skin, hair, and nails, and as an expression of body art, especially in Islamic and Hindu cultures. As it stains the skin reddish-brown, it is also called red henna. Black henna is the combination of red henna with p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and is used for temporary 'black henna tattoos'. This article provides a full review of the side-effects of topical application of red and black henna, both cutaneous (allergic and non-allergic) and systemic. Red henna appears to be generally safe, with rare instances of contact allergy and type I hypersensitivity reactions. In children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, topical application of henna may cause life-threatening haemolysis. Black henna tattoos will induce contact allergy to its ingredient PPD at an estimated frequency of 2.5%. Once sensitized, the patients may experience allergic contact dermatitis from the use of hair dyes containing PPD. There are often cross-reactions to other hair dyes, dyes used in textiles, local anaesthetics, and rubber chemicals. The sensitization of children to PPD may have important consequences for health and later career prospects. Systemic toxicity of black henna has been reported in certain African countries.
    Contact Dermatitis 07/2013; 69(1):1-25. · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many women and men now dye their hair. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a frequent and important component of permanent hair dye products; exposure to it may cause allergic contact sensitization, acute dermatitis, and severe facial oedema. To increase our understanding of PPD allergy, we reviewed published literature containing PPD patch test data from dermatitis patients and individuals in the general population. This was performed to estimate the median prevalence and the weighted average of PPD sensitization and thereby assess the burden of PPD-containing hair care products on health. Literature was examined using PubMed–MEDLINE, Biosis, and Science Citation Index. The median prevalence among dermatitis patients was 4.3% in Asia, 4% in Europe, and 6.2% in North America. A widespread increase in the prevalence of PPD sensitization was observed among Asian dermatitis patients. In Europe, a decrease in the 1970s was replaced by a plateau with steady, high prevalences ranging between 2% and 6%. The prevalence remained high in North America, although a decreasing tendency was observed. Contact allergy to PPD is an important health issue for both women and men. More stringent regulation and enforcement are required as public health measures to reduce the burden of disease that exposure to PPD has brought to populations.
    Contact Dermatitis 11/2008; 59(6):327 - 343. · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an era in which cosmetics are commonly used, their often prolonged contact with the human body should determine the safety of their use. Often cosmetics are the cause of many side effects, mainly hypersensitivity reactions. Common groups of cosmetic components responsible for side effects are fragrances, preservatives and dyes. This paper focuses on the most allergenic components.
    Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii 10/2013; 30(5):307-310. · 0.66 Impact Factor