"Kittner  and Rodes-Cabau et al.  described cardiogenic emboli as the most common cause of ischemic stroke in younger persons (15.4%). PFO and atrial septal aneuryms (ASA) are described in literature as the most common cardiac anomaly found in stroke/TIA [28–32]. Cabanes et al.  distinguished PFO in 43% and ASA in 28% of the population <55 years old. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze risk factors for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in young adults under the age of 50. To make recommendations for additional research and practical consequences. From 97 patients with ischemic stroke or TIA under the age of 50, classical cardiovascular risk factors, coagulation disorders, history of migraine, use of oral contraceptives, cardiac abnormalities on ECG and echocardiography, and the results of duplex ultrasound were retrospectively analyzed. Literature was reviewed and compared to the results. 56.4% of the patients had hypertension, 12.1% increased total cholesterol, 20% hypertriglyceridemia, 31.5% an increased LDL-level, 32.6% a decreased HDL-level and 7.2% a disturbed glucose tolerance. Thrombophilia investigation was abnormal in 21 patients and auto-immune serology was abnormal in 15 patients. Ten of these patients were already known with a systemic disease associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke (i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus). The ECG was abnormal in 16.7% of the cases, the echocardiography in 12.1% and duplex ultrasound of the carotid arteries was in 31.8% of the cases abnormal. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors are not only important in patients over the age of 50 with ischemic stroke or TIA, but also in this younger population under the age of 50. Thrombophilia investigation and/ or autoimmune serology should be restricted to patients without conventional cardiovascular risk factors and a history or other clinical symptoms associated with hypercoagulability and/ or autoimmune diseases.
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 01/2011; 31(1):85-91. DOI:10.1007/s11239-010-0491-3 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired thrombophilia, characterized by the occurrence of venous and arterial events. This article examines the laboratory and key clinical aspects of APS. Particular focus is given to anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) antibodies in view of their recent inclusion in the APS classification criteria. The clinical utility of using the beta(2)GPI enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in conjunction with the established lupus anticoagulant assays and cardiolipin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, for diagnosing and risk stratifying patients suspected of having APS is discussed. The relative importance of the various assays in diagnosing obstetric APS (early and late gestation miscarriages) is explored. The implications of recent epidemiologic findings for possibly understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of obstetric APS are highlighted. Insights into which patients with obstetric APS may be at most risk of thrombotic complications are presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conflicting results are available on the association of prothrombotic genetic abnormalities with patent foramen ovale (PFO)-related cerebral ischaemia. We comprehensively sought and identified studies of the association of both the factor V Leiden (FV(G1691A) mutation) and the prothrombin mutation (PT(G20210A) mutation) with PFO-related cerebral ischaemia and did meta-analyses to assess the evidence for such a relation. We analysed data from six eligible studies in 856 cases and 1,001 control subjects. Additional unpublished data from a new series including 463 subjects were also entered into the analysis. The PT(G20210A) variant was significantly associated with PFO-related stroke in comparison with both control subjects (odds ratio [OR] 3.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.22 to 6.66) and non-PFO-associated stroke patients (OR 2.31; 95% CI 1.20 to 4.43), whereas a trend toward an association was observed for the FV(G1691A) mutation (OR 1.18; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.90, compared to control subjects; OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.62 to 2.09, compared to non-PFO-associated stroke patients). The status of carrier of either the FV(G1691A) mutation or the PT(G20210A) variant was associated with a risk for stroke of 1.98 (95% CI 1.38 to 2.83) and 1.62 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.57), as compared to control subjects and non-PFO-associated stroke patients, respectively. Addition of common prothrombotic genetic variants to standard initial screening may contribute to stratifying PFO-associated stroke patients at different risk of ischaemic events and targeting secondary prevention strategies.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2009; 101(5):813-7. DOI:10.1160/TH08-11-0747 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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