The capacity to rectify DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is crucial for the survival of all species. DSBs can be repaired either by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The long-standing notion that bacteria rely solely on HR for DSB repair has been overturned by evidence that mycobacteria and other genera have an NHEJ system that depends on a dedicated DNA ligase, LigD, and the DNA-end-binding protein Ku. Recent studies have illuminated the role of NHEJ in protecting the bacterial chromosome against DSBs and other clastogenic stresses. There is also emerging evidence of functional crosstalk between bacterial NHEJ proteins and components of other DNA-repair pathways. Although still a young field, bacterial NHEJ promises to teach us a great deal about the nexus of DNA repair and bacterial pathogenesis.
"Many of the agents which are produced as part of the immune response like reactive nitrogen and oxygen species cause different damages to the bacterial DNA. Signaling and repair of the DNA damage thus become important in mycobacterial pathophysiology . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic di-AMP is a recently discovered signaling molecule which regulates various aspects of bacterial physiology and virulence. Here we report the characterization of c-di-AMP synthesizing and hydrolyzing proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recombinant Rv3586 (MtbDisA) can synthesize c-di-AMP from ATP through the diadenylate cyclase activity. Detailed biochemical characterization of the protein revealed that the diadenylate cyclase (DAC) activity is allosterically regulated by ATP. We have identified the intermediates of the DAC reaction and propose a two-step synthesis of c-di-AMP from ATP/ADP. MtbDisA also possesses ATPase activity which is suppressed in the presence of the DAC activity. Investigations by liquid chromatography -electrospray ionization mass spectrometry have detected multimeric forms of c-di-AMP which have implications for the regulation of c-di-AMP cellular concentration and various pathways regulated by the dinucleotide. We have identified Rv2837c (MtbPDE) to have c-di-AMP specific phosphodiesterase activity. It hydrolyzes c-di-AMP to 5'-AMP in two steps. First, it linearizes c-di-AMP into pApA which is further hydrolyzed to 5'-AMP. MtbPDE is novel compared to c-di-AMP specific phosphodiesterase, YybT (or GdpP) in being a soluble protein and hydrolyzing c-di-AMP to 5'-AMP. Our results suggest that the cellular concentration of c-di-AMP can be regulated by ATP concentration as well as the hydrolysis by MtbPDE.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86096. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086096 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"C-NHEJ and A-EJ have also been described in bacteria . In Mycobacterium smegmatis, the vast majority of Ku-independent junctions harbor microhomology-mediated deletions, indicating that A-EJ substituted for C-NHEJ during DSB repair . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are harmful lesions leading to genomic instability or diversity. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a prominent DSB repair pathway, which has long been considered to be error-prone. However, recent data have pointed to the intrinsic precision of NHEJ. Three reasons can account for the apparent fallibility of NHEJ: 1) the existence of a highly error-prone alternative end-joining process; 2) the adaptability of canonical C-NHEJ (Ku- and Xrcc4/ligase IV-dependent) to imperfect complementary ends; and 3) the requirement to first process chemically incompatible DNA ends that cannot be ligated directly. Thus, C-NHEJ is conservative but adaptable, and the accuracy of the repair is dictated by the structure of the DNA ends rather than by the C-NHEJ machinery. We present data from different organisms that describe the conservative/versatile properties of C-NHEJ. The advantages of the adaptability/versatility of C-NHEJ are discussed for the development of the immune repertoire and the resistance to ionizing radiation, especially at low doses, and for targeted genome manipulation.
"The release of substances by immune cells that cause oxidative damage, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, are known to cause DNA damage (2). Infectious organisms may also potentially benefit from ‘mistakes’ in repair as such errors often generate diversity that can contribute to the development of drug resistance or other means of accelerated adaptation to the host (3). There are two well-characterized mechanisms for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), canonical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) (4). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria parasites replicate asexually within their mammalian hosts as haploid cells and are subject to DNA damage from the immune response and chemotherapeutic agents that can significantly disrupt genomic integrity. Examination of the annotated genome of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum identified genes encoding core proteins required for the homologous recombination (HR) pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but surprisingly none of the components of the canonical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) pathway were identified. To better understand how malaria parasites repair DSBs and maintain genome integrity, we modified the yeast I-SceI endonuclease system to generate inducible, site-specific DSBs within the parasite's genome. Analysis of repaired genomic DNA showed that parasites possess both a typical HR pathway resulting in gene conversion events as well as an end joining (EJ) pathway for repair of DSBs when no homologous sequence is available. The products of EJ were limited in number and identical products were observed in multiple independent experiments. The repair junctions frequently contained short insertions also found in the surrounding sequences, suggesting the possibility of a templated repair process. We propose that an alternative end-joining pathway rather than C-NHEJ, serves as a primary method for repairing DSBs in malaria parasites.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; 42(1). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt881 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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