Diffusion-tensor MR imaging and tractography: exploring brain microstructure and connectivity.

Department of Radiology, Sections of Neuroradiology and Biomedical Image Analysis, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.34). 12/2007; 245(2):367-84. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2452060445
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is evolving into a potent tool in the examination of the central nervous system. Although it is often used for the detection of acute ischemia, evaluation of directionality in a diffusion measurement can be useful in white matter, which demonstrates strong diffusion anisotropy. Techniques such as diffusion-tensor imaging offer a glimpse into brain microstructure at a scale that is not easily accessible with other modalities, in some cases improving the detection and characterization of white matter abnormalities. Diffusion MR tractography offers an overall view of brain anatomy, including the degree of connectivity between different regions of the brain. However, optimal utilization of the wide range of data provided with directional diffusion MR measurements requires careful attention to acquisition and postprocessing. This article will review the principles of diffusion contrast and anisotropy, as well as clinical applications in psychiatric, developmental, neurodegenerative, neoplastic, demyelinating, and other types of disease.

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