Adolescents frequenting indoor tanning facilities may have an increased risk of skin cancer. The high level of indoor tanning by this age group may be due, in part, to the large number of tanning facilities in US cities. This study examined how facilities are distributed throughout one large county. Based on ecological models, it was predicted that tanning facilities are more likely to be located within certain neighborhoods based on the neighborhood's distributions of demographic factors, including income, educational attainment, race/ethnicity, age, and sex. We also explored whether selected aspects of the built environment, including the numbers of high schools and fitness centers, would predict the number of tanning facilities. The number of tanning facilities within 605 census tracts of San Diego County was examined through geographic information systems mapping. Results from multivariate Poisson log-linear regression indicated that higher numbers or proportions of the following variables within a census tract were significantly, positively correlated with the number of tanning facilities: fitness centers, teenagers 15-19 years, females 15-24 years, females 25-29 years, and non-Hispanic Whites. Results from additional analyses using a 1000-foot buffer zone around each census tract boundary showed that higher relative distributions of the following variables were significantly, positively correlated with the number of tanning facilities: high schools, fitness centers, females 15-24 years, females 25-29 years, and non-Hispanic Whites. These findings suggest a relationship exists between the numbers of tanning facilities and certain built-environmental and demographic characteristics within census tracts. Determining this relationship is important for developing future interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent meta-analysis found that indoor tanning use before the age of 35 years increases the risk of melanoma, supporting policies to restrict indoor tanning use among adolescents. The objectives of the current study were to provide a national assessment of prevalence and trends of indoor tanning use among US adolescents, to examine changes in the prevalence of indoor tanning use from 1998 to 2004 in relation to state policies on minors' access, and to assess the prevalence of burns, rashes, and infections among users.
Two cross-sectional population-based surveys of US youths ages 11 to 18 years and their parents/guardians conducted in 1998 (N=1196) and 2004 (N=1613) used identical questions to assess use of indoor tanning and correlates of this behavior.
The prevalence of indoor tanning use by adolescents within the past year changed little from 1998 to 2004 (10% to 11%). In states with policies regarding minors' access to indoor tanning, the prevalence stayed the same or decreased from 1998 to 2004, whereas it increased in states without such policies. Neither trend was found to be statistically significant. Youth tanning attitudes, parental indoor tanning use, and parents' permission were strongly associated with youth use of indoor tanning. Fifty-eight percent of users reported burns from indoor tanning.
The presence of state legislation restricting minors' access to indoor tanning appears to have limited effectiveness, perhaps because most states' policies permit use with parental consent. Multipronged approaches are needed to reduce indoor tanning use in youths.
Cancer 01/2009; 115(1):190-8. DOI:10.1002/cncr.24010 · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: U.S. adolescents and young adults are using indoor tanning at high rates, even though it has been linked to both melanoma and squamous cell cancer. Because the availability of commercial indoor tanning facilities may influence use, data are needed on the number and density of such facilities.
In March 2006, commercial indoor tanning facilities in 116 large U.S. cities were identified, and the number and density (per 100,000 population) were computed for each city. Bivariate and multivariate analyses conducted in 2008 tested the association between tanning-facility density and selected geographic, climatologic, demographic, and legislative variables.
Mean facility number and density across cities were 41.8 (SD=30.8) and 11.8 (SD=6.0), respectively. In multivariate analysis, cities with higher percentages of whites and lower ultraviolet (UV)index scores had significantly higher facility densities than those with lower percentages of whites and higher UV index scores.
These data indicate that commercial indoor tanning is widely available in the urban U.S., and this availability may help explain the high usage of indoor tanning.
American journal of preventive medicine 04/2009; 36(3):243-6. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.10.020 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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