Academic Achievement Over 8 Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age

Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.48). 05/2008; 36(3):399-410. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-007-9186-4
Source: PubMed


The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence and other confounds were controlled, children who met modified criteria for the predominantly inattentive subtype of ADHD in wave 1 had lower reading, spelling, and mathematics scores over time than both comparison children and children who met modified criteria for the other subtypes of ADHD. In some analyses, children who met modified criteria for the combined type had somewhat lower mathematics scores than comparison children. The robust academic deficits relative to intelligence in the inattentive group in this age range suggest either that inattention results in academic underachievement or that some children in the inattentive group have learning disabilities that cause secondary symptoms of inattention. Unexpectedly, wave 1 internalizing (anxiety and depression) symptoms independently predicted deficits in academic achievement controlling ADHD, intelligence, and other predictors.

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    • "ADHD is one of the commonest mental health disorders in childhood with a prevalence of 5.3% (Polanczyk, de Lima, Horta, Biederman, & Rohde, 2007). The core symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000, 2013) affect academic functioning (Biederman et al., 1996; Loe & Feldman, 2007; Massetti et al., 2008; Rapport, Scanlan, & Denney, 1999; Sexton, Gelhorn, Bell, & Classi, 2012; Tannock, 1998). Comorbidities are common in children diagnosed with ADHD (Yoshimasu et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to determine literacy and numeracy outcomes, among children with and without ADHD by gestational age and gender. De-identified linked population data from the Western Australian Monitoring of Drugs of Dependence System and Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment databases, and the Midwives Notification System used information on 6,819 children with ADHD compared with 14,451 non-ADHD children. A total of 23% of boys and 28% of girls with ADHD had numeracy scores below the benchmark in School Year 3, compared with 11% of children without ADHD. These differences were also evident for reading, writing, and spelling through primary school. Children with ADHD and reduced gestational age were at a greater risk of not meeting numeracy and reading benchmarks, compared with children born at term. Children with ADHD are disadvantaged from an early age in key areas of learning, and this risk increased with reduction in gestational age at birth. © 2015 SAGE Publications.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1087054715596575 · 3.78 Impact Factor
    • "Interessanterweise zeigten sich beim Blick auf die deskriptive Verteilung der nach DSM-IV aufgeführten Subtypen von ADHS, dass unabhängig von der Gruppenzugehörigkeit am häufigsten der unaufmerksame Subtypus vorkommt , während der vorwiegend hyperaktiv-impulsive Subtypus und der Mischtypus seltener vorzufinden sind. Diese Einschätzung deckt sich mit den Ergebnissen früherer Studien, nach denen vor allem die bei den Kindern beobachtbare Unaufmerksamkeit mit schulischen Minderleistungen einhergeht (Massetti et al., 2008; Polderman et al., 2010; Willcutt & Pennington, 2000). Im schulischen Alltag treten allerdings meist diejenigen Kinder mit hyperaktiven und impulsiven Symptomen in den Vordergrund, da sie schulische Abläufe sehr viel stärker stören. "

    Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie 05/2015; 43(3):185-193. DOI:10.1024/1422-4917/a000352 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    • "The patterns generally suggest that children with the IA subtype are more likely to experience academic impairment (e.g., learning disabilities, problems with school work), whereas children with the Combined (CB) subtype are more likely to experience behavioral impairment such as problems with peers, opposition and conduct problems (Barkley et al. 1990; Garner et al. 2013; Gaub and Carlson 1997; Graetz et al. 2001; Langberg et al. 2011; Willcutt et al. 2012) and that this relationship may remain throughout childhood and into young adulthood (e.g., Gordon et al. 2006; Molina et al. 2001). Others have demonstrated predictive validity for the inattentive subtype of ADHD, as children who met symptom criteria for the ADHD-IA subtype exhibited lower achievement scores over 8 years than those without ADHD or who met symptom criteria for another subtype (Massetti et al. 2008). Further, in a normative sample of children from Spain, confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor variances in the school setting for IA symptoms where higher than that those for HI symptoms (Burns et al. 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between ADHD symptoms and impairment within a sample that includes children in early childhood (n = 250), middle childhood (n = 269) and adolescence (i.e., high school; n = 269). Nested multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the extent to which each ADHD symptom dimension (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) is most associated with impairment in academic, social, and behavioral functioning within and across three developmental levels. Results indicated for academic impairment, inattention is more predictive than hyperactivity/impulsivity at all ages. For social functioning, both with peers and teachers, hyperactivity/impulsivity is more predictive than inattention but only for early childhood students; at the high school level, inattention is a significant predictor of social impairment. For behavioral functioning in the classroom, the pattern is mixed across dimensions and ages with HI decreasing in predictive utility across the three age groups and IA increasing in predictive utility. Forward stepwise regression was used to determine which of the 18 ADHD symptom items are most associated with impairment within and across developmental levels. Findings indicate that the symptoms that were most predictive of impairment varied by age group and by domain of impairment. Implications for assessment are discussed.
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