Protective effects of paeonol on cultured rat hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury

School of Medicine, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, PR China.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.47). 02/2008; 264(1-2):50-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2007.06.057
Source: PubMed


Mounting evidence has suggested that paeonol possesses plenty of pharmacologic actions. Our research is to determine if paeonol can protect cultured rat hippocampal neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation(OGD)-induced injury and elucidate the underlying mechanism. We cultivated the rat hippocampal neurons as the object of study and then established the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation. Neuronal viability was measured by the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), while intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was observed by fluorospectrophotometer. The binding force of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was evaluated by liquid scintillation counting. Compared with oxygen-glucose deprivation group, paeonol treatment obviously increased cell survival rate and reduced the activity of the binding force of NMDA receptors, reversing the overload of intracellular Ca(2+). These results demonstrate that paeonol protected rat neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury, resulting in alleviating the morphological damage and increasing neuron viability and suggest that paeonol may exhibit its protective effect against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury by targeting on NMDA receptors.

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    • "Paeonol is one of the main active components from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa (the tree peony), which has been widely used in Asia and Europe. Paeonol has potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in humans by alleviating morphological damage [4], increasing neuron viability [5], and reducing cerebral infarction [5], [6]. Paeonol also possesses anti-atherogenic [7] and anti-arrhythmic [8] activities, and is widely used in cardiovascular diseases [9], [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to design a novel topical skin-target drug-delivery system, the paeonol microsponge, and to investigate its drug-release patterns in dosage form, both in vitro and in vivo. Paeonol microsponges were prepared using the quasi-emulsion solvent-diffusion method. In vitro release studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, while in vivo studies were investigated by microdialysis after the paeonol microsponges were incorporated into a cream base. In vitro release studies showed that the drug delivered via microsponges increased the paeonol permeation rate. Ex vivo drug-deposition studies showed that the microsponge formulation improved drug residence in skin. In addition, in vivo microdialysis showed that the values for the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) for the paeonol microsponge cream was much higher than that of paeonol cream without microsponges. Maximum time (Tmax) was 220 min for paeonol microsponge cream and 480 min for paeonol cream, while the half-life (t1/2) of paeonol microsponge cream (935.1 min) was almost twice that of paeonol cream (548.6 min) in the skin (n = 3). Meanwhile, in the plasma, the AUC value for paeonol microsponge cream was half that of the paeonol cream. Based on these results, paeonol-loaded microsponge formulations could be a better alternative for treating skin disease, as the formulation increases drug bioavailability by lengthening the time of drug residence in the skin and should reduce side-effects because of the lower levels of paeonol moving into the circulation.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79881. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079881 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Among the different areas of the hippocampus, the CA1 area is the most vulnerable to hypoxic events, followed by the dentate gyrus that also suffers neuronal damage [31]. During a hypoxic event, overactivation of glutamate receptors allow a massive amount of calcium into the cell, which leads to a cascade of events that if not resolved, ultimately leads to cell death [32], [33]. Therefore, an increase in intracellular calcium levels is one indicator of a neuron experiencing a hypoxic insult. "
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    ABSTRACT: The acute brain slice preparation is an excellent model for studying the details of how neurons and neuronal tissue respond to a variety of different physiological conditions. But open slice chambers ideal for electrophysiological and imaging access have not allowed the precise spatiotemporal control of oxygen in a way that might realistically model stroke conditions. To address this problem, we have developed a microfluidic add-on to a commercially available perfusion chamber that diffuses oxygen throughout a thin membrane and directly to the brain slice. A microchannel enables rapid and efficient control of oxygen and can be modified to allow different regions of the slice to experience different oxygen conditions. Using this novel device, we show that we can obtain a stable and homogeneous oxygen environment throughout the brain slice and rapidly alter the oxygen tension in a hippocampal slice. We also show that we can impose different oxygen tensions on different regions of the slice preparation and measure two independent responses, which is not easily obtainable with current techniques.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43309. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043309 · 3.23 Impact Factor
    • "Compounds 1-10 were identified with paeonol (1), 4-acetylphenol (2), 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (3), 4-O-methyl ether gallacetophenone (4), acetoveratrone (5), 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone (6), vanillic acid (7), resacetophenone (8), m-acetylphenol (9), and 3,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone (10). Paeonol (1) has shown to protect rat neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury and had anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.[910] 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (3) was found to selectively inhibit the aggregation of rabbit platelets induced by arachidonic acid.[11] "
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    ABSTRACT: Cynanchum paniculatum Kitagawa belongs to Asclepiadaceae and was used in traditional medicine to invigorate blood, alleviate edema, relieve pain, and relieve toxicity for a long time. A novel and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector method has been established for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds isolated from Cynanchum paniculatum Kitagawa, one of the herbal medicines. The chromatography analysis was performed on a SHISEIDO C(18) column (S-5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. × 250 mm) at 35°C with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1ml/min and UV detection at 210, 230, and 280 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, and accuracy. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) > 0.9996). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) fell in the ranges 0.01 - 0.28 μg/ml and 0.04 - 0.83 μg/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra- and inter- day test, precision test were within 1.92% and 2.43%, respectively. The mean recovery of all ranged from 92.82 to 107.96% with RSD values 0.12 - 2.18%. The results of validation appeared that this established method was very accurate and stabilized for the quantification of 10 bioactive compounds isolated from C. paniculatum.
    Pharmacognosy Magazine 07/2012; 8(31):231-6. DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99289 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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