TP508 accelerates fracture repair by promoting cell growth over cell death.
ABSTRACT TP508 is a synthetic 23-amino acid peptide representing a receptor-binding domain of human thrombin. We have previously shown that a single injection of TP508 accelerates fracture healing in a rat femoral fracture model. To understand how TP508 acts at the protein level during fracture healing, we compared the translational profiles between saline-control and fractured femur at six time points after TP508 treatment using the second generation of BD Clontechtrade mark Antibody Microarray. Here, we demonstrate that TP508 accelerates fracture healing by modulating expression levels of proteins primarily involved in the functional categories of cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, and cell death. The majority of those proteins are physically interrelated and functionally overlapped. The action of those proteins is highlighted by a central theme of promoting cell growth via balance of cell survival over cell death signals. This appears to occur through the stimulation of several bone healing pathways including cell cycle-G1/S checkpoint regulation, apoptosis, JAK/STAT, NF-kappaB, PDGF, PI3K/AKT, PTEN, and ERK/MAPK.
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ABSTRACT: Thrombin and thrombin peptides play a key role in wound healing and tissue regeneration. Early events initiated by thrombin contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells. Certain nonproteolytic effects of thrombin, or thrombin peptides presumably released from fibrin clots, also appear to affect revascularization and progression of the repair process. Thus, the role of thrombin in wound healing goes far beyond hemostasis. Recent animal studies and human clinical trials with TP508, a specific 23 amino acid peptide representing a receptor-binding domain of thrombin, show significant improvement in healing and revascularization of dermal wounds and bone fractures. These studies highlight a role of thrombin peptides in wound healing that is just beginning to be recognized.04/2010: pages 115-132;
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is an immediate response that plays a critical role in healing after fracture or injury to bone. However, in certain clinical contexts, such as in inflammatory diseases or in response to the implantation of a biomedical device, the inflammatory response may become chronic and result in destructive catabolic effects on the bone tissue. Since our previous review 3 years ago, which identified inflammatory signals critical for bone regeneration and described the inhibitory effects of anti-inflammatory agents on bone healing, a multitude of studies have been published exploring various aspects of this emerging field. In this review, we distinguish between regenerative and damaging inflammatory processes in bone, update our discussion of the effects of anti-inflammatory agents on bone healing, summarize recent in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating how inflammation can be modulated to stimulate bone regeneration, and identify key future directions in the field.Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 05/2011; 17(6):393-402. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field.Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering 01/2012; 40(5):363-408.