Nateglinide, alone or in combination with metformin, is effective and well tolerated in treatment-naïve elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nateglinide alone or in combination with metformin in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
Study 1 was a 12-week, multicentre, randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled study of nateglinide monotherapy (120 mg, before meals) in 66 drug-naïve patients with T2DM aged >or=65 years. Study 2 was a 104-week, multicentre, randomized, double blind and active-controlled study of nateglinide (120 mg, before meals) or glyburide (up to 5 mg bid) in combination with metformin (up to 1000 mg bid) in 69 treatment-naïve patients with T2DM aged >or=65 years. HbA(1c), fasting and postprandial glucose levels, and safety assessments were made.
In Study 1, nateglinide significantly reduced HbA(1c) from baseline (7.6 +/- 0.1% to 6.9 +/- 0.1%; Delta = -0.7 +/- 0.1%, p < 0.001) and compared with placebo (between-group difference = -0.5%, p = 0.004 vs. nateglinide). No hypoglycaemia was reported. In Study 2, combination therapy with nateglinide/metformin significantly reduced HbA(1c) from baseline (7.8 +/- 0.2% to 6.6 +/- 0.1%; Delta = -1.2 +/- 0.2%, p < 0.001), as did glyburide/metformin (7.7 +/- 0.1% to 6.5 +/- 0.1%; Delta = -1.2 +/- 0.1%, p < 0.001). There was no difference between treatments (p = 0.310). One nateglinide/metformin-treated patient experienced a mild hypoglycaemic episode compared with eight episodes in eight patients on glyburide/metformin; one severe episode led to discontinuation. Target HbA(1c) (<7.0%) was achieved by 60% of patients receiving nateglinide (Study 1) and 70% of nateglinide/metformin-treated patients (Study 2).
Initial drug treatment with nateglinide, alone or in combination with metformin, is well tolerated and produces clinically meaningful improvements in glycaemic control in elderly patients with T2DM.
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ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes provides impetus for both development of new drugs to improve glycemic control and for reconsideration of treatment strategies with existing agents. Combination therapy with complementary drug classes that act on different aspects of glycemic control has been a particularly effective strategy. This work reviews the published literature reporting efficacy and safety/tolerability of nateglinide, a rapid-onset insulinotropic agent with a predominant effect to reduce postprandial glucose, when combined with metformin, a first-line agent that suppresses hepatic glucose production and thereby reduces fasting plasma glucose. The nateglinide/metformin combination has consistently been found to be both efficacious and well tolerated, whether given as initial combination therapy in drug-naïve patients or when added to metformin monotherapy. Maximum efficacy (Δ glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]= −1.4% to −1.9%, sustained for up to 2 years of treatment) was seen in studies of drug-naïve patients in whom pharmacotherapy was initiated with the combination of nateglinide and metformin, and modest reductions in HbA1c (Δ = −0.5% to −1.2%, sustained for up to 24 weeks) were found when nateglinide was added to ongoing metformin monotherapy. Conclusion: the combination of nateglinide and metformin provides a sustained degree of glycemic control not achievable with either agent given as monotherapy.Vascular Health and Risk Management 02/2008; 4(6):1167-78.
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ABSTRACT: To compare the effect of adding nateglinide or placebo on postprandial glucose excursions (PPGEs), glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), diurnal glucose profiles and hypoglycaemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with the combination of basal insulin and metformin. This was an investigator-initiated, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, study in five centres. Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 88, age 56.0 +/- 0.9 years, duration of diabetes 9.4 +/- 0.5 years, HbA(1c) 7.8 +/- 0.1%, body mass index 32.4 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2)) treated with basal insulin and metformin entered a 24-week period, during which basal insulin was titrated to optimize glucose control. Thereafter, the patients were randomized to receive either nateglinide (120 mg three times daily) or placebo before their main meals for 24 weeks. During the optimization period, HbA(1c) decreased by -0.3 +/- 0.1 and -0.4 +/- 0.2% (NS) and insulin doses increased by 10.0 IU (2.0-32.0) [0.09 IU/kg (0.02-0.34)] and 10.0 IU (0.0-19.0) [0.11 IU/kg (0.0-0.25)] (NS) in the nateglinide and placebo groups. Mean postprandial glucose during weeks 20-24 averaged 9.0 +/- 0.3 and 10.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/l in the nateglinide and placebo groups (P = 0.025) and mean PPGE averaged 2.4 +/- 0.2 and 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, respectively (P = 0.019). At 24 weeks as compared with 0 weeks, mean HbA(1c) had decreased by 0.41 +/- 0.12% in the nateglinide group and by 0.04 +/- 0.12% in the placebo group (P = 0.023). The frequency of confirmed, symptomatic hypoglycaemia was 7.7 episodes/patient-year vs. 4.7 episodes/patient-year in the nateglinide and placebo groups (P = 0.031). Addition of a short-acting insulin secretagogue at main meals improves postprandial hyperglycaemia during combination therapy with basal insulin and metformin, but increases the frequency of hypolycaemia.Diabetic Medicine 05/2009; 26(4):409-15. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02691.x · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent that has been shown to reduce total mortality compared to other anti-hyperglycemic agents, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin, however, is thought to increase the risk of lactic acidosis, and has been considered to be contraindicated in many chronic hypoxemic conditions that may be associated with lactic acidosis, such as cardiovascular, renal, hepatic and pulmonary disease, and advancing age. To assess the incidence of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis, and to evaluate blood lactate levels, for those on metformin treatment compared to placebo or non-metformin therapies. A comprehensive search was performed of electronic databases to identify studies of metformin treatment. The search was augmented by scanning references of identified articles, and by contacting principal investigators. Prospective trials and observational cohort studies in patients with type 2 diabetes of least one month duration were included if they evaluated metformin, alone or in combination with other treatments, compared to placebo or any other glucose-lowering therapy. The incidence of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis was recorded as cases per patient-years, for metformin treatment and for non-metformin treatments. The upper limit for the true incidence of cases was calculated using Poisson statistics. In a second analysis lactate levels were measured as a net change from baseline or as mean treatment values (basal and stimulated by food or exercise) for treatment and comparison groups. The pooled results were recorded as a weighted mean difference (WMD) in mmol/L, using the fixed-effect model for continuous data. Pooled data from 347 comparative trials and cohort studies revealed no cases of fatal or nonfatal lactic acidosis in 70,490 patient-years of metformin use or in 55,451 patients-years in the non-metformin group. Using Poisson statistics the upper limit for the true incidence of lactic acidosis per 100,000 patient-years was 4.3 cases in the metformin group and 5.4 cases in the non-metformin group. There was no difference in lactate levels, either as mean treatment levels or as a net change from baseline, for metformin compared to non-metformin therapies. There is no evidence from prospective comparative trials or from observational cohort studies that metformin is associated with an increased risk of lactic acidosis, or with increased levels of lactate, compared to other anti-hyperglycemic treatments.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2010; DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD002967.pub3 · 5.94 Impact Factor