Racial differences in end-stage renal disease rates in HIV infection versus diabetes.
ABSTRACT Few studies have compared the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diabetes. We followed a national sample of 2,015,891 US veterans over a median peroid of 3.7 years for progression to ESRD. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of ESRD (per 1000 person-years) among HIV-infected black patients was nearly an order of magnitude higher than among HIV-positive white patients, almost twice that of diabetic whites, and similar to that among diabetic blacks. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, diabetes was associated with an increased risk of ESRD among white patients, but HIV was not. Among black individuals, however, both HIV and diabetes conferred a similar increase in the risk of ESRD (4- to 5-fold increase compared to white individuals without HIV or diabetes). HIV and diabetes carry a similar risk of ESRD among black patients, highlighting the importance of developing strategies to prevent and treat renal disease among HIV-infected black individuals.
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ABSTRACT: To provide an overview of databases that are maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and are of relevance to investigators involved in epidemiologic, clinical, and health services research. We reviewed both national and local VA databases and identified their strengths and limitations. We also referenced specific studies that have assessed the validity and reliability of VA databases. There are numerous national databases housed at the Austin Automation Center in Austin, Texas. These include the Patient Treatment File (hospital abstracts), the Outpatient Care File, the Beneficiary Identification Record Locator System death file for assessing vital status, and the Decision Support System, which provides integrated clinical and financial information for managerial decision making. The major limitation of these databases is that clinical detail below the level of ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes is not uniformly available nationally. These databases offer an excellent opportunity to monitor the health of veterans over time because they track all inpatient and outpatient utilization in the VA. However, at the local or medical center level, the Veterans Health Information and Systems and Technology Architecture contains extensive clinical information, but has fewer patients, varies in format across medical centers, and poses difficulties with data extraction for statistical analysis. Both local and national VA databases are valuable resources for investigators who have interests in a wide array of research topics, including diabetes. The potential for investigating important scientific questions with VA databases becomes greater as communications and database management technologies improve.Diabetes Care 06/2004; 27 Suppl 2:B22-6. · 7.74 Impact Factor
- New England Journal of Medicine 07/2001; 344(26):1979-84. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patient race in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) information system was previously recorded based on an administrative or clinical employee's observation. Since 2003, the VA started to collect self-reported race in compliance with a new federal guideline. We investigated the implications of this transition for using race/ethnicity data in multi-year trends in the VA and in other healthcare data systems that make the transition. All unique users of VA healthcare services with self-reported race/ethnicity data in 2004 were compared with their prior observer-recorded race/ethnicity data from 1997-2002 (N = 988,277). In 2004, only about 39% of all VA healthcare users reported race/ethnicity values other than "unknown" or "declined." Females reported race/ethnicity at a lower rate than males (27% vs. 40%; p < 0.001). Over 95% of observer-recorded data agreed with self-reported data. Compared with the patient self-reported data, the observer-recorded White and African American races were accurate for 98% (kappa = 0.89) and 94% (kappa = 0.93) individuals, respectively. Accuracy of observer-recorded races was much worse for other minority groups with kappa coefficients ranging between 0.38 for American Indian or Alaskan Natives and 0.79 for Hispanic Whites. When observer-recorded race/ethnicity values were reclassified into non-African American groups, they agreed with the self-reported data for 98% of all individuals (kappa = 0.93). For overall VA healthcare users, the agreement between observer-recorded and self-reported race/ethnicity was excellent and observer-recorded and self-reported data can be used together for multi-year trends without creating serious bias. However, this study also showed that observation was not a reliable method of race/ethnicity data collection for non-African American minorities and racial disparity might be underestimated if observer-recorded data are used due to systematic patterns of inaccurate race/ethnicity assignments.Population Health Metrics 02/2006; 4:7. · 2.11 Impact Factor