Racial differences in end-stage renal disease rates in HIV infection versus diabetes.
ABSTRACT Few studies have compared the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diabetes. We followed a national sample of 2,015,891 US veterans over a median peroid of 3.7 years for progression to ESRD. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of ESRD (per 1000 person-years) among HIV-infected black patients was nearly an order of magnitude higher than among HIV-positive white patients, almost twice that of diabetic whites, and similar to that among diabetic blacks. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, diabetes was associated with an increased risk of ESRD among white patients, but HIV was not. Among black individuals, however, both HIV and diabetes conferred a similar increase in the risk of ESRD (4- to 5-fold increase compared to white individuals without HIV or diabetes). HIV and diabetes carry a similar risk of ESRD among black patients, highlighting the importance of developing strategies to prevent and treat renal disease among HIV-infected black individuals.
SourceAvailable from: Robert C KalayjianClinical Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 59(8). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu527 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The burden of HIV disease has shifted from traditional AIDS-defining illnesses to serious non-AIDS-defining comorbid conditions. Research aimed at improving HIV-related comorbid disease outcomes requires well-defined, verified clinical endpoints. We developed methods to ascertain and verify end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and validated screening algorithms within the largest HIV cohort collaboration in North America (NA-ACCORD). Individuals who screened positive among all participants in twelve cohorts enrolled between January 1996 and December 2009 underwent medical record review to verify incident ESRD or ESLD using standardized protocols. We randomly sampled 6% of contributing cohorts to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of ESLD and ESRD screening algorithms in a validation subcohort. Among 43,433 patients screened for ESRD, 822 screened positive of which 620 met clinical criteria for ESRD. The algorithm had 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 82% PPV, and 100% NPV for ESRD. Among 41,463 patients screened for ESLD, 2,024 screened positive of which 645 met diagnostic criteria for ESLD. The algorithm had 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 27% PPV, and 100% NPV for ESLD. Our methods proved robust for ascertainment of ESRD and ESLD in persons infected with HIV.AIDS research and treatment 02/2015; 2015:1-11. DOI:10.1155/2015/923194
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ABSTRACT: It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2014; 59(9). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu617 · 9.42 Impact Factor