In vivo functional analysis of the counterbalance of hyperactive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110 catalytic oncoproteins by the tumor suppressor PTEN.
ABSTRACT The signaling pathways involving class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) and the phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate phosphatase PTEN regulate cell proliferation and survival. Thus, mutations in the corresponding genes are associated to a wide variety of human tumors. Heterologous expression of hyperactive forms of mammalian p110alpha and p110beta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to growth arrest, which is counterbalanced by coexpression of mammalian PTEN. Using this in vivo yeast-based system, we have done an extensive functional analysis of germ-line and somatic human PTEN mutations, as well as a directed mutational analysis of discrete PTEN functional domains. A distinctive penetrance of the PTEN rescue phenotype was observed depending on the levels of PTEN expression in yeast and on the combinations of the inactivating PTEN mutations and the activating p110alpha or p110beta mutations analyzed, which may reflect pathologic differences found in tumors with distinct alterations at the p110 and PTEN genes or proteins. We also define the minimum length of the PTEN protein required for stability and function in vivo. In addition, a random mutagenesis screen on PTEN based on this system allowed both the reisolation of known clinically relevant PTEN mutants and the identification of novel PTEN loss-of-function mutations, which were validated in mammalian cells. Our results show that the PI3K/PTEN yeast-based system is a sensitive tool to test in vivo the pathologic properties and the functionality of mutations in the human p110 proto-oncogenes and the PTEN tumor suppressor and provide a framework for comprehensive functional studies of these tumor-related enzymes.
Article: A New Insight into Structural and Functional Impact of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in PTEN Gene.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays essential roles in cellular processes including survival, proliferation, energy metabolism, and cellular architecture. Activating the mutations of PTEN has long been known to produce a variety of disorders, mainly diabetes and cancer in humans. Owing to the importance of PTEN gene, a functional analysis using different in silico approaches was undertaken to explore the possible associations between genetic mutations and phenotypic variation. SIFT, PolyPhen, I-Mutant 3.0, SNP&GO, and PHD-SNP were used for initial screening of functional nsSNPs. From the observed results, three mutations R47G, H61D, and V343E were selected based on their surface accessibility and total energy change. By molecular dynamics approach, H61D showed increase in flexibility, radius of gyration, solvent accessibility, and deviated more from the native structure which was supported by the decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds. Further from principal component analysis and interaction analysis, we identified significant structural changes that can reasonably explain the involvement of deviations in stability caused by mutations. Our analysis also predicts the involvement of SNPs that could potentially influence post-translational modifications in PTEN gene. These in silico predictions could provide a new insight into structural and functional impact of PTEN polymorphisms.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 11/2012; · 3.34 Impact Factor
Article: A comprehensive functional analysis of PTEN mutations: implications in tumor- and autism-related syndromes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) phosphatase is unique in mammals in terms of its tumor suppressor activity, exerted by dephosphorylation of the lipid second messenger PIP(3) (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate), which activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) oncogenic pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN gene are frequent in human cancer and in the germline of patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor-related syndromes (PHTSs). In addition, PTEN is mutated in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although no functional information on these mutations is available. Here, we report a comprehensive in vivo functional analysis of human PTEN using a heterologous yeast reconstitution system. Ala-scanning mutagenesis at the catalytic loops of PTEN outlined the critical role of residues within the P-catalytic loop for PIP(3) phosphatase activity in vivo. PTEN mutations that mimic the P-catalytic loop of mammalian PTEN-like proteins (TPTE, TPIP, tensins and auxilins) affected PTEN function variably, whereas tumor- or PHTS-associated mutations targeting the PTEN P-loop produced complete loss of function. Conversely, Ala-substitutions, as well as tumor-related mutations at the WPD- and TI-catalytic loops, displayed partial activity in many cases. Interestingly, a tumor-related D92N mutation was partially active, supporting the notion that the PTEN Asp92 residue might not function as the catalytic general acid. The analysis of a panel of ASD-associated hereditary PTEN mutations revealed that most of them did not substantially abrogate PTEN activity in vivo, whereas most of PHTS-associated mutations did. Our findings reveal distinctive functional patterns among PTEN mutations found in tumors and in the germline of PHTS and ASD patients, which could be relevant for therapy.Human Molecular Genetics 08/2011; 20(21):4132-42. · 7.64 Impact Factor