[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hyper-IgE syndrome (or Job's syndrome) is a rare disorder of immunity and connective tissue characterized by dermatitis, boils, cyst-forming pneumonias, elevated serum IgE levels, retained primary dentition, and bone abnormalities. Inheritance is autosomal dominant; sporadic cases are also found.
We collected longitudinal clinical data on patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome and their families and assayed the levels of cytokines secreted by stimulated leukocytes and the gene expression in resting and stimulated cells. These data implicated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene (STAT3) as a candidate gene, which we then sequenced.
We found increased levels of proinflammatory gene transcripts in unstimulated peripheral-blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells from patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome, as compared with levels in control cells. In vitro cultures of mononuclear cells from patients that were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, with or without interferon-gamma, had higher tumor necrosis factor alpha levels than did identically treated cells from unaffected persons (P=0.003). In contrast, the cells from patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome generated lower levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in response to the presence of interleukin-6 (P=0.03), suggesting a defect in interleukin-6 signaling through its downstream mediators, one of which is STAT3. We identified missense mutations and single-codon in-frame deletions in STAT3 in 50 familial and sporadic cases of the hyper-IgE syndrome. Eighteen discrete mutations, five of which were hot spots, were predicted to directly affect the DNA-binding and SRC homology 2 (SH2) domains.
Mutations in STAT3 underlie sporadic and dominant forms of the hyper-IgE syndrome, an immunodeficiency syndrome involving increased innate immune response, recurrent infections, and complex somatic features.
New England Journal of Medicine 11/2007; 357(16):1608-19. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a compound primary immunodeficiency characterized by a highly elevated serum IgE, recurrent staphylococcal skin abscesses and cyst-forming pneumonia, with disproportionately milder inflammatory responses, referred to as cold abscesses, and skeletal abnormalities. Although some cases of familial HIES with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance have been reported, most cases of HIES are sporadic, and their pathogenesis has remained mysterious for a long time. Here we show that dominant-negative mutations in the human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) gene result in the classical multisystem HIES. We found that eight out of fifteen unrelated non-familial HIES patients had heterozygous STAT3 mutations, but their parents and siblings did not have the mutant STAT3 alleles, suggesting that these were de novo mutations. Five different mutations were found, all of which were located in the STAT3 DNA-binding domain. The patients' peripheral blood cells showed defective responses to cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, and the DNA-binding ability of STAT3 in these cells was greatly diminished. All five mutants were non-functional by themselves and showed dominant-negative effects when co-expressed with wild-type STAT3. These results highlight the multiple roles played by STAT3 in humans, and underline the critical involvement of multiple cytokine pathways in the pathogenesis of HIES.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STAT proteins are a family of eukaryotic transcription factors that mediate the response to a large number of cytokines and growth factors. Upon activation by cell-surface receptors or their associated kinases, STAT proteins dimerize, translocate to the nucleus and bind to specific promoter sequences on their target genes. Here we report the first crystal structure of a STAT protein bound to its DNA recognition site at 2.25 Å resolution. The structure provides insight into the various steps by which STAT proteins deliver a response signal directly from the cell membrane to their target genes in the nucleus.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.