Adolescent Obesity and Risk for Subsequent Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorder: Prospective Evidence

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.47). 12/2007; 69(8):740-7. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31815580b4
Source: PubMed


To assess whether adolescent obesity is associated with risk for development of major depressive disorder (MDD) or anxiety disorder. Obesity has been linked to psychosocial difficulties among youth.
Analysis of a prospective community-based cohort originally from upstate New York, assessed four times over 20 years. Participants (n = 776) were 9 to 18 years old in 1983; subsequent assessments took place in 1985 to 1986 (n = 775), 1991 to 1994 (n = 776), and 2001 to 2003 (n = 661). Using Cox proportional hazards analysis, we evaluated the association of adolescent (age range, 12-17.99 years) weight status with risk for subsequent MDD or anxiety disorder (assessed at each wave by structured diagnostic interviews) in males and females. A total of 701 participants were not missing data on adolescent weight status and had > or = 1 subsequent assessments. MDD and anxiety disorder analyses included 674 and 559 participants (free of current or previous MDD or anxiety disorder), respectively. Adolescent obesity was defined as body mass index above the age- and gender-specific 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth reference.
Adolescent obesity in females predicted an increased risk for subsequent MDD (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 3.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3, 11.8) and for anxiety disorder (HR = 3.8; CI = 1.3, 11.3). Adolescent obesity in males was not statistically significantly associated with risk for MDD (HR = 1.5; CI = 0.5, 3.5) or anxiety disorder (HR = 0.7; CI = 0.2, 2.9).
Females obese as adolescents may be at increased risk for development of depression or anxiety disorders.

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    • "In a study in conducted adolescents; obesity was a predictor of an increased risk for developing major depressive disorder in females but not males (Anderson et al., 2007). In adolescent females obesity but not being overweight was significantly associated with future depressive symptoms but not major depression in a study that was conducted in 2010. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is public health burden and affects all age groups, including children and adolescents. For children aged between 2 and 19 years having a BMI ≥85th percentile but <95th percentile is defined as being overweight. Being obese is defined as having a BMI ≥95th percentile. Nutrition during early development is directly associated with future obesity. In case of having an obese mother; offspring's obesity onset occurs earlier regardless of race or ethnic groups. Obesity brings psychosocial problems with itself. Obese children may have difficulties in interacting socially with environment; may have problems particularly with their age groups. Withdrawal from the society may be a major problem. Preventive measures focusing parents, family and environment should begin at preconception. Maternal factors of childhood obesity can be eliminated, and risk factors for developing adolescent and adult obesity may be avoided. These measures may help us first to decrease the rate of obesity and achieve a downward trend in prevalence. This in turn; may decrease the number of people with obesity and obesity related diseases.
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    • "Second, only two studies assessed a clinical diagnosis of major depression rather than depressive symptoms only. Among longitudinal studies, one found that adolescent girls who are obese, but not boys, are more the likely to develop major depression 20 years later.7 Another recruited people in late adulthood (mean age, 63) and found that obesity increased the risk of onset of depression.8 "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has been shown to be associated with depression and it has been suggested that higher body mass index (BMI) increases the risk of depression and other common mental disorders. However, the causal relationship remains unclear and Mendelian randomisation, a form of instrumental variable analysis, has recently been employed to attempt to resolve this issue. To investigate whether higher BMI increases the risk of major depression. Two instrumental variable analyses were conducted to test the causal relationship between obesity and major depression in RADIANT, a large case-control study of major depression. We used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FTO and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 32 SNPs with well-established associations with BMI. Linear regression analysis, as expected, showed that individuals carrying more risk alleles of FTO or having higher score of GRS had a higher BMI. Probit regression suggested that higher BMI is associated with increased risk of major depression. However, our two instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal relationship between higher BMI and major depression (FTO genotype: coefficient -0.03, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.13, P = 0.73; GRS: coefficient -0.02, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.07, P = 0.62). Our instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal relationship between higher BMI and major depression. The positive associations of higher BMI with major depression in probit regression analyses might be explained by reverse causality and/or residual confounding.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 05/2014; 205(1). DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.130419 · 7.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Overweight and depression are prevalent health problems [1, 2] that are correlated with each other in adulthood, especially among women [3, 4]. Associations between adolescent overweight and adult depression [5, 6] as well as between adolescent depression and adolescent and adult overweight [7–9] have been observed. Several mechanisms may explain these associations: being overweight may facilitate the development of depression due to low self-esteem and body dissatisfaction [10], and depression may facilitate becoming overweight due to reduced physical activity [11], increased eating [12], reduced self-regulatory strength [13], and low self-efficacy [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression and being overweight are correlated health problems in adulthood. Adolescence is a significant period for the onset and increase of depression and obesity, especially among girls. Pubertal development also occurs with concomitant increases in weight. Thus, it is not yet clear whether the association between depression and being overweight can be explained by pubertal development. We examined the association between depressive mood, body weight, and pubertal status in adolescent girls. The design was cross-sectional. In 962 young adolescent Dutch girls (age range, 11.9-15.9) weight and height measurements were used to calculate height, age, and gender-standardized body weight (zBMI). Questionnaires assessed depressive mood (the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression, CES-D, inventory) and menarcheal status (pre or post). The correlation between menarcheal status and body weight (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) was not affected by depressive mood, and the correlation between menarcheal status and depressive mood (r = 0.20, p < 0.001) was not affected by body weight. A small correlation between depressive mood and body weight (r = 0.12, p < 0.01) largely disappeared after controlling for menarche. Menarcheal status largely explains the association between weight and depression. It is independently associated with both BMI and depression, suggesting that different mechanisms underlie the post-menarcheal increased prevalence of depression and overweight.
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 09/2011; 18(3):254-9. DOI:10.1007/s12529-010-9113-x · 2.63 Impact Factor
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