Acute diabetes moderates trafficking of cardiac lipoprotein lipase through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent actin cytoskeleton organization.
ABSTRACT Heart disease is a leading cause of death in diabetes and could occur because of excessive use of fatty acid for energy generation. Our objective was to determine the mechanisms by which AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) augments cardiac lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the enzyme that provides the heart with the majority of its fatty acid.
We used diazoxide in rats to induce hyperglycemia or used 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and thrombin to directly stimulate AMPK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), respectively, in cardiomyocytes.
There was a substantial increase in LPL at the coronary lumen following 4 h of diazoxide. In these diabetic animals, phosphorylation of AMPK, p38 MAPK, and heat shock protein (Hsp)25 produced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement to facilitate LPL translocation to the myocyte surface and, eventually, the vascular lumen. AICAR activated AMPK, p38 MAPK, and Hsp25 in a pattern similar to that seen with diabetes. AICAR also appreciably enhanced LPL, an effect reduced by preincubation with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 or by cytochalasin D, which inhibits actin polymerization. Thrombin activated p38 MAPK in the absence of AMPK phosphorylation. Comparable with diabetes, activation of p38 MAPK and, subsequently, Hsp25 phosphorylation and F-actin polymerization corresponded with an enhanced LPL activity. SB202190 and silencing of p38 MAPK also prevented these effects induced by thrombin and AICAR, respectively.
We propose that AMPK recruitment of LPL to the cardiomyocyte surface (which embraces p38 MAPK activation and actin cytoskeleton polymerization) represents an immediate compensatory response by the heart to guarantee fatty acid supply when glucose utilization is compromised.
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ABSTRACT: In diabetes, when glucose consumption is restricted, the heart adapts to use fatty acid (FA) exclusively. The majority of FA provided to the heart comes from the breakdown of circulating triglyceride (TG), a process catalyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) located at the vascular lumen. The objective of the current study was to determine the mechanisms behind LPL processing and breakdown after moderate and severe diabetes. To induce acute hyperglycemia, diazoxide, a selective, ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener was used. For chronic diabetes, streptozotocin, a β-cell-specific toxin was administered at doses of 55 or 100 mg/kg to generate moderate and severe diabetes, respectively. Cardiac LPL processing into active dimers and breakdown at the vascular lumen was investigated. After acute hyperglycemia and moderate diabetes, more LPL is processed into an active dimeric form, which involves the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calnexin. Severe diabetes results in increased conversion of LPL into inactive monomers at the vascular lumen, a process mediated by FA-induced expression of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl-4). In acute hyperglycemia and moderate diabetes, exaggerated LPL processing to dimeric, catalytically active enzyme increases coronary LPL, delivering more FA to the heart when glucose utilization is compromised. In severe chronic diabetes, to avoid lipid oversupply, FA-induced expression of Angptl-4 leads to conversion of LPL to inactive monomers at the coronary lumen to impede TG hydrolysis. Results from this study advance our understanding of how diabetes changes coronary LPL, which could contribute to cardiovascular complications seen with this disease.Diabetes 06/2011; 60(8):2041-50. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Islet beta-cells express both insulin receptors and insulin-signaling proteins. Recent evidence from rodents in vivo and from islets isolated from rodents or humans suggests that the insulin signaling pathway is physiologically important for glucose sensing. We evaluated whether insulin regulates beta-cell function in healthy humans in vivo. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was assessed in healthy humans following 4-h saline (low insulin/sham clamp) or isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (high insulin) clamps using B28-Asp insulin that could be immunologically distinguished from endogenous insulin. Insulin and C-peptide clearance were evaluated to understand the impact of hyperinsulinemia on estimates of beta-cell function. Preexposure to exogenous insulin increased the endogenous insulin secretory response to glucose by approximately 40%. C-peptide response also increased, although not to the level predicted by insulin. Insulin clearance was not saturated at hyperinsulinemia, but metabolic clearance of C-peptide, assessed by infusion of stable isotope-labeled C-peptide, increased modestly during hyperinsulinemic clamp. These studies demonstrate that insulin potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo in healthy humans. In addition, hyperinsulinemia increases C-peptide clearance, which may lead to modest underestimation of beta-cell secretory response when using these methods during prolonged dynamic testing.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2010; 107(10):4770-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We summarize recent progress on GPIHBP1, a molecule that transports lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to the capillary lumen, and discuss several newly studied molecules that appear important for the regulation of LPL activity. LPL, the enzyme responsible for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, interacts with multiple proteins and is regulated at multiple levels. Several regulators of LPL activity have been known for years and have been investigated thoroughly, but several have been identified only recently, including an endothelial cell protein that transports LPL to the capillary lumen, a microRNA that reduces LPL transcript levels, a sorting protein that targets LPL for uptake and degradation, and a transcription factor that increases the expression of apolipoproteins that regulate LPL activity. Proper regulation of LPL is important for controlling the delivery of lipid nutrients to tissues. Recent studies have identified GPIHBP1 as the molecule that transports LPL to the capillary lumen, and have also identified other molecules that are potentially important for regulating LPL activity. These new discoveries open new doors for understanding basic mechanisms of lipolysis and hyperlipidemia.Current opinion in lipidology 11/2011; 23(1):35-42. · 6.13 Impact Factor