Aberrant hippocampal activity underlies the dopamine dysregulation in an animal model of schizophrenia
ABSTRACT Evidence supports a dysregulation of subcortical dopamine (DA) system function as a common etiology of psychosis; however, the factors responsible for this aberrant DA system responsivity have not been delineated. Here, we demonstrate in an animal model of schizophrenia that a pathologically enhanced drive from the ventral hippocampus (vHipp) can result in aberrant dopamine neuron signaling. Adult rats in which development was disrupted by prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) administration display a significantly greater number of spontaneously firing ventral tegmental DA neurons. This appears to be a consequence of excessive hippocampal activity because, in MAM-treated rats, vHipp inactivation completely reversed the elevated DA neuron population activity and also normalized the augmented amphetamine-induced locomotor behavior. These data provide a direct link between hippocampal dysfunction and the hyper-responsivity of the DA system that is believed to underlie the augmented response to amphetamine in animal models and psychosis in schizophrenia patients.
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ABSTRACT: Neuropathological changes of the hippocampus have been associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent work has particularly implicated hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the pathophysiology of these diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying structural and cellular hippocampal pathology remain poorly understood. We used data from comprehensive difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) investigations of postmortem human hippocampus of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, covering the acidic (isoelectric point (pI) between pH4 and 7) and, separately, the basic (pI between pH6 and 11) sub-proteome, for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of implicated protein networks and pathways. Comparing disease and control cases, we identified 58 unique differentially expressed proteins in schizophrenia, and 70 differentially expressed proteins in bipolar disorder, using mass spectrometry. IPA implicated, most prominently, 14-3-3 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in schizophrenia, and gluconeogenesis/glycolysis in bipolar disorder. Both disorders were characterized by alterations of proteins involved in the oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and protein-endocytosis, -trafficking, -degradation, and -ubiquitination. These findings are interpreted with a focus on GABAergic interneuron pathology in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Schizophrenia Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.02.002 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia.Frontiers in Neuroscience 03/2015; 9:74. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00074
Frontiers in Psychology 04/2015; 6(April):1-5. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00478 · 2.80 Impact Factor