Arp2/3-independent assembly of actin by Vibrio type III effector VopL

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 11/2007; 104(43):17117-22. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0703196104
Source: PubMed


Microbial pathogens use a variety of mechanisms to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton during infection. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, and new pandemic strains are emerging throughout the world. Analysis of the V. para genome revealed a type III secretion system effector, VopL, encoding three Wiskott-Aldrich homology 2 domains that are interspersed with three proline-rich motifs. Infection of HeLa cells with V. para induces the formation of long actin fibers in a VopL-dependent manner. Transfection of VopL promotes the assembly of actin stress fibers. In vitro, recombinant VopL potently induces assembly of actin filaments that grow at their barbed ends, independent of eukaryotic factors. Vibrio VopL is predicted to be a bacterial virulence factor that disrupts actin homeostasis during an enteric infection of the host.

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Available from: Dara L Burdette, Oct 08, 2015
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    • "(Makino et al., 2003), which blocks the MAPKs signaling pathway by inhibiting the start and biological activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (Trosky et al., 2004), thereby suppressing cell division via a new mechanism. Vop L (VPA1370) contains three Wiskott Aldrich homology 2 (WH2) domains and a C-terminal domain (VCD; Namgoong et al., 2011; Yu et al., 2011), which generally induces the formation of polarized actin fibers and accelerates the gathering of actin filaments by binding to actin monomers (Liverman et al., 2007). Notably, Vop L may provide a favorable microenvironment in which bacteria can replicate, thereby enhancing the uptake and invasion of V. parahaemolyticus. "
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    Frontiers in Microbiology 03/2015; 6:144. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00144 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "The tandem WH2 array of VopL is a weak actin nucleator on its own; nucleation activity is improved through VopL dimerization, which is mediated by the effector's C-terminal domain (Yu et al., 2011). Cell expression of VopL causes a dramatic actin phenotype characterized by formation of stress fibres that span the whole cell body (Liverman et al., 2007) (Fig. 3). Stress fibres exert tension that allows cell reshaping; this may prove beneficial for bacterial entry or for maintenance of cell structure during bacterial replication. "
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    ABSTRACT: Entry into host cells and intracellular persistence by invasive bacteria are tightly coupled to the ability of the bacterium to disrupt the eukaryotic cytoskeletal machinery. Herein we review the main strategies used by three intracellular pathogens to harness key modulators of the cytoskeleton. Two of these bacteria, namely Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, exhibit quite distinct intracellular lifestyles, and therefore, provide a comprehensive panel for the understanding of the intricate bacteria-cytoskeleton interplay during infections. The emerging intracellular pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is depicted as a developing model for the uncovering of novel mechanisms used to hijack the cytoskeleton. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Cellular Microbiology 12/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1111/cmi.12399 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Vibrio cholerae up-regulates chemotaxis genes in response to chitin oligosaccharides, facilitating attachment to chitinous organisms (Meibom et al. 2005). An effector protein of T3SS2 aids in improved colonization of V. parahaemolyticus (Liverman et al. 2007). Type IV pili also induce colonization in some bacterial pathogens including V. vulnificus (Paranjpye et al. 2007). "
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