Article

Screening statins for possible carcinogenic risk: up to 9 years of follow-up of 361 859 recipients

Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety (Impact Factor: 3.17). 01/2008; 17(1):27-36. DOI: 10.1002/pds.1507
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Determine the risk of cancer in statin users.
Risk of cancer in up to 9.4 years after first recorded receipt of statins was evaluated in subscribers of an integrated health care program in northern California. Statin use and cancer development were ascertained from the program's pharmacy records and cancer registry from August 1994 to December 2003.
Most of the 361,859 statin users received lovastatin, simvastatin or both. Results are presented from analyses with 2-year lag and use for over 5 years. Most of the observed associations were likely due to chance or confounding. The few associations that seemed less readily explainable were increased risk of cancers of the thyroid, esophagus and urinary tract and decreased risk of colon cancer in men. Increased risk of lung cancer was the only nominally statistically significant positive association in women and could be partially attributable to their smoking habits.
Overall this study provided no strong evidence of either causation or prevention of cancer by statins.

1 Follower
 · 
149 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: In recent years, the potential risk of cancer associated with statin use has been a focus of much interest. However, it remains uncertain whether statin therapy is associated with cancer risk. To examine the association between statin use and the risk of cancer, we conducted data mining using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and a large organized database of claims constructed by a database vendor (The Japan Medical Data Center Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan [JMDC]). Methods: Relevant reports in the FAERS, which included data from the first quarter of 2004 through the end of 2012, were identified and analyzed. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was used to detect spontaneous report signals and was calculated using the case/non-case method. Additionally, signals were detected via the information component (IC) using the IC025 metric. Furthermore, event sequence symmetry analysis (ESSA) was applied to identify the risk of cancer following treatment with statins over the period January 2005 to July 2013. Results: In the FAERS database analyses, significant signals for colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer were found for statins as a class. In the ESSA, significant associations between statin use and colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer were found, with adjusted sequence ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.20 (1.08-1.34) and 1.31 (1.13-1.53), respectively, at an interval of 48 months. Conclusions: Multi-methodological approaches using different algorithms and databases suggest that statin use is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer.
    International journal of medical sciences 01/2015; 12(3):223-233. DOI:10.7150/ijms.10656 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to quantify the association between use of statins and the risk of all hematological malignancies and of subtypes, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. We achieved a MEDLINE/EMBASE comprehensive search for studies published up to August 2014 investigating the association between use of statins and the risk of hematological malignancies, including Hodgkin- and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate the summary relative risk (RR) based on adjusted study-specific results. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Q and I(2) statistics and the sources of heterogeneity were investigated using Deeks' test. Moreover, an influence analysis was performed. Finally, publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot and Egger's regression asymmetry test. Fourteen studies (10 case-control and four cohort studies) contributed to the analysis. Statin use, compared to nonuse of statins, was negatively associated with all hematological malignancies taken together (summary RR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77-0.96), with leukemia (0.83; 0.74-0.92), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.81; 0.68 to 0.96), but it was not related to the risk of myeloma (0.89; 0.53-1.51). Long-term users of statins showed a statistically significant reduction in the risk of all hematological malignancies taken together (0.78; 0.71-0.87). Statistically significant between-studies heterogeneity was observed for all outcome except for leukemia. Heterogeneity was caused by differences confounding-adjustment level of the included studies only for Myeloma. No significant evidence of publication bias was found. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Cancer Medicine 02/2015; 4(5). DOI:10.1002/cam4.411
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide and is one of the few cancers that is increasing in incidence. This cancer often arises in the setting of hepatic cirrhosis; however, it can also occur in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection without cirrhosis. Statins have been used for many years for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Based on recent meta-analy-ses, these lipid-lowering agents are now being investigated for a class effect observed in the prevention of carcinogenesis. There are robust data suggesting that statins can alter biochemical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and cell survival and, thus, have a protective effect by reducing the risk of development of several types of cancer. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated that statins also can specifically decrease the risk of HCC development. Because statins are underutilized in patients with preexisting liver disease, understanding the role of statins in the prevention of HCC is important, and changes in practice guidelines supporting the use of statins as chemoprotective agents may be warranted.
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2014; 10(7):417-26.