Screening statins for possible carcinogenic risk: up to 9 years of follow-up of 361 859 recipients
ABSTRACT Determine the risk of cancer in statin users.
Risk of cancer in up to 9.4 years after first recorded receipt of statins was evaluated in subscribers of an integrated health care program in northern California. Statin use and cancer development were ascertained from the program's pharmacy records and cancer registry from August 1994 to December 2003.
Most of the 361,859 statin users received lovastatin, simvastatin or both. Results are presented from analyses with 2-year lag and use for over 5 years. Most of the observed associations were likely due to chance or confounding. The few associations that seemed less readily explainable were increased risk of cancers of the thyroid, esophagus and urinary tract and decreased risk of colon cancer in men. Increased risk of lung cancer was the only nominally statistically significant positive association in women and could be partially attributable to their smoking habits.
Overall this study provided no strong evidence of either causation or prevention of cancer by statins.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: In recent years, the potential risk of cancer associated with statin use has been a focus of much interest. However, it remains uncertain whether statin therapy is associated with cancer risk. To examine the association between statin use and the risk of cancer, we conducted data mining using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and a large organized database of claims constructed by a database vendor (The Japan Medical Data Center Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan [JMDC]). Methods: Relevant reports in the FAERS, which included data from the first quarter of 2004 through the end of 2012, were identified and analyzed. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was used to detect spontaneous report signals and was calculated using the case/non-case method. Additionally, signals were detected via the information component (IC) using the IC025 metric. Furthermore, event sequence symmetry analysis (ESSA) was applied to identify the risk of cancer following treatment with statins over the period January 2005 to July 2013. Results: In the FAERS database analyses, significant signals for colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer were found for statins as a class. In the ESSA, significant associations between statin use and colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer were found, with adjusted sequence ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.20 (1.08-1.34) and 1.31 (1.13-1.53), respectively, at an interval of 48 months. Conclusions: Multi-methodological approaches using different algorithms and databases suggest that statin use is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer.
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ABSTRACT: In order to quantify the association between use of statins and the risk of all hematological malignancies and of subtypes, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. We achieved a MEDLINE/EMBASE comprehensive search for studies published up to August 2014 investigating the association between use of statins and the risk of hematological malignancies, including Hodgkin- and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate the summary relative risk (RR) based on adjusted study-specific results. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Q and I(2) statistics and the sources of heterogeneity were investigated using Deeks' test. Moreover, an influence analysis was performed. Finally, publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot and Egger's regression asymmetry test. Fourteen studies (10 case-control and four cohort studies) contributed to the analysis. Statin use, compared to nonuse of statins, was negatively associated with all hematological malignancies taken together (summary RR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77-0.96), with leukemia (0.83; 0.74-0.92), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.81; 0.68 to 0.96), but it was not related to the risk of myeloma (0.89; 0.53-1.51). Long-term users of statins showed a statistically significant reduction in the risk of all hematological malignancies taken together (0.78; 0.71-0.87). Statistically significant between-studies heterogeneity was observed for all outcome except for leukemia. Heterogeneity was caused by differences confounding-adjustment level of the included studies only for Myeloma. No significant evidence of publication bias was found. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Cancer Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/cam4.411
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in patients submitted to transurethral bladder resection (TURB) comparing subjects in chronic therapy with aspirin, statins, or both drugs to untreated ones. This retrospective study was conducted on 574 patients diagnosed with NMIBC who underwent TURB between March 2008 and April 2013. The study population was divided into two main groups: treated (aspirin and/or statins) and untreated. The treated group was further divided into three therapeutic subgroups: Group A (100 mg of aspirin, daily for at least two years); Group B (20 mg or more of statins, daily for at least two years); and Group C (100 mg of aspirin and 20 mg of statins together).The mean follow-up of patients was 45.06 months. No significant differences were observed among the different groups at baseline. On multivariate analysis, statin treatment, smokers and high stage disease (T1) achieved the level of independent risk factor for the occurrence of a recurrence. When patients were stratified according to the different treatment; patients treated with statins (Group B) presented an higher rate of failure (56/91 patients; 61.5%) when compared to Group A (42/98 patients; 42.9%), Group C (56/98; 57.1%) and (133/287 patients; 46.3%). This difference corresponds to a significant difference in recurrence failure free survival (p = 0.01). Our results suggest that long-term treatment with aspirin in patients with NMIBC might play a role on reducing the risk of tumor recurrence. In contrast, in our investigation data from statins and combination treatment groups showed increased recurrence rates. A long-term randomized prospective study could definitively assess the possible role of this widely used drugs in NMIBC.BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1):1152. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1152-x · 3.32 Impact Factor