Painful Bladder Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis (PBS/IC) occurs predominantly in women. It is a poorly-understood condition with symptoms of bladder pain, urinary frequency, urgency and nocturia. Treatments for PBS/IC include dietary/lifestyle interventions, oral medication, intravesical instillations and, in some cases, surgery. Success rates are generally modest and there is little consensus as to the best form of treatment for this condition.
To assess the effectiveness of intravesical treatment for PBS/IC.
We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group specialised trials register (30 May 2006) as well as reference lists of all selected trials. Recognised researchers in the field were contacted for any additional relevant material.
Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials were included in the review if they had recruited participants with a clinical diagnosis of PBS/IC and if at least one arm of the trial was treatment with an intravesical preparation. Outcome measures were pre-determined, the primary ones being the effect on pain and bladder capacity. Others included symptomatic response to treatment, quality-of-life assessment, economic factors and adverse events.
Two reviewers independently assessed trial eligibility and quality, then extracted relevant data from the studies.
Nine eligible trials were identified - six parallel group, one incomplete cross-over and two cross-over trials - with a total of 616 participants. Six trials compared an 'active' instillation with placebo instillation, two compared different types of instillation, and one was a comparison of an instillation plus bladder training versus bladder training alone. Altogether, the review included trials of six different types of intravesical instillation: Resiniferatoxin, Dimethyl sulfoxide, BCG, pentosanpolysulphate, oxybutin, and alkalinisation of urine pH. Confidence intervals were generally wide. Resiniferatoxin was not associated with sustained differences in the review outcomes reported but pain during instillation and withdrawal from treatment was significantly more common. The data available about Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were very limited but with no apparent differences from placebo. Groups treated with BCG tended to report less pain and fewer general symptoms. Although adverse events were commonly reported, these were no more common after BCG than after placebo instillation. The few data about Pentosanpolysulphate tended to favour the actively treated, but with wide confidence intervals; there was little information about adverse events. Oxybutinin instillation was associated with increased bladder capacity, reduced frequency, improved quality of life scores and fewer drop-outs. Alkalinisation of urine pH did not make any clear difference, but with potentially wide confidence intervals.
Overall, the evidence base for treating PBS/IC using intravesical preparations is limited and the potential for meta-analysis reduced by variation in the outcome measures used. The quality of trial reports was mixed and in some cases this precluded any meaningful data extraction. BCG and oxybutin are reasonably well-tolerated and evidence is most promising for these. Resiniferatoxin showed no evidence of effect for most outcomes and caused pain, which reduced treatment compliance. There is little evidence for the other treatments included in this review. Randomised controlled trials are still needed and study design should incorporate outcomes that are most relevant to these with PBS/IC and should be standardised.
"Une revue de la Cochrane Database a été réalisée et publiée par Dawson et Jamison , en 2007. Ils ont retenu neuf études randomisées ou quasi-randomisées comprenant au total 616 patients ayant un syndrome douloureux vésical/cystite interstitielle traité par des instillations endovésicales . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionPainful bladder syndrome is defined as chronic pelvic pain present for more than 6 months, causing discomfort perceived as being related to the bladder and accompanied by a persistent and strong urge to urinate or urinary frequency. The purpose of this article is to review the treatment of painful bladder syndrome.Material and methodsA comprehensive review of the literature was performed by searching PUBMED for articles on specific treatments for painful bladder syndrome.ResultsMany treatments have been proposed for the management of painful bladder syndrome: local intravesical treatments (glucosaminoglycan [pentosan polysulfate], dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO], heparin, bacillus Calmette-Guérin [BCG], anticholinergic agents [oxybutynin, etc.] or oral treatments [glucosaminoglycan (pentosan polysulfate), antihistamines, antidepressants, immunosuppressives, etc.]) with an action on the pathophysiology of this syndrome. The efficacy of these various treatments has been limited, with trials based on small numbers of patients and not always conducted according to a randomized, prospective design. Other salvage treatments (neuromodulation, botulinum toxin, surgery, etc.) have also been reported with limited efficacy, but allowing salvage of treatment failures.Conclusion
The therapeutic management of painful bladder syndrome is complex. The large number of proposed treatment modalities present a limited efficacy with discordant results from one study to another making comparisons and analyses difficult.
Progrès en Urologie 11/2010; 20(12):1044-1053. DOI:10.1016/j.purol.2010.08.045 · 0.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We evaluated the effectiveness of combining behavioral therapy, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistension for treating painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with PBS/IC were prospectively enrolled in a pilot multimodal behavioral, pharmacologic and endoscopic treatment protocol. Behavioral modification included diet recommendations, fluid restriction to 64 oz. /day, progressive timed voiding and Kegel exercises. Oral pharmacologic therapy consisted of daily doses of macrodantin 100 mg, hydroxyzine 10-20 mg and urised 4 tablets. Patients underwent endoscopic bladder hydrodistention under anesthesia at least 2 weeks after protocol enrollment. Behavioral and pharmacological treatments were continued after the hydrodistention. O'Leary-Sant questionnaire scores were recorded before starting the protocol, after pharmacologic/behavioral therapy, 2 months post-hydrodistension, and at scheduled follow-up. Results: Eighteen patients (72%) completed the pilot multimodal treatment protocol and were followed for a mean of 10.2 months. All patients were female with a median age of 36.3 years and had mean bladder capacity under anesthesia of 836 milliliters. Mean O'Leary-Sant symptom index scores for baseline symptoms, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistension and during follow up were 12.5, 8.6, 7.0, and 6.7 (p < 0.05). Mean O'Leary-Sant problem index scores for baseline, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistention and during follow up were 12.7, 8.9, 6.7, and 7.7 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our pilot multimodal protocol of behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistention demonstrated a significant progressive improvement in PBS/IC quality of life scores, compared to a pre-treatment baseline. These results should be validated in a larger, placebo controlled trial.
International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 01/2009; 35(4):467-74. DOI:10.1590/S1677-55382009000400011 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the pathophysiology, diagnosis and controversies surrounding the diagnosis and pharmacological treatments of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) in children, we reviewed adult and paediatric literature pertaining to PBS/IC. Paediatric PBS/IC presents similarly to adult PBS/IC. The diagnosis is made by exclusion. Paediatric PBS/IC patients complain most commonly of urinary frequency, and abdominal pain occurs in up to 88% of affected children. Enuresis may also be a presenting complaint. Urinalysis and urine cultures are unremarkable. Management of paediatric PBS/IC is similar to that of adult PBS/IC, and non-surgical management includes dietary, lifestyle and pharmacological therapy. Pharmacological options include pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, hydroxyzine, cimetidine or intravesical therapies (dimethyl sulfoxide or 'therapeutic solution').
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