The associations between smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and asthma severity in the general US population
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and asthma severity among US adults. The magnitude of these associations was very strong. For example, those who visited an emergency room in the past year were 60% more likely than those who did not to smoke; those who used an inhaler > or =15 times in the past month (versus those who did not use an inhaler) were 90% more likely to be physically inactive; and those who had asthma symptoms all the time in the past 30 days (versus those with no symptoms) were 80% more likely to be obese.
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ABSTRACT: Rationale: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic lung disease. We have previously shown in an in vivo mouse model that maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with alterations in early life lung structure and function. However, there are limited data to support a relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency during the early stages of lung development and post-natal lung function in human populations. Objectives: To assess the association between maternal vitamin D deficiency, post-natal lung function and asthmatic status in a longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: Serum was collected at 16-20 weeks gestation at the time of recruitment in a community based prospective birth cohort for measurement of vitamin D (25(OH)D). Lung function was assessed by spirometry according to ATS guidelines in children at 6 and 14 years of age. Demographic and clinical history data were collected by questionnaire at recruitment and at the follow up visits. Measurements and Main Results: FVC Z-scores in both sexes (β; 0.007[0.001, 0.013], p = 0.02) and FEV1 Z-scores in females (β; 0.007[0.001, 0.013], p = 0.02) were positively associated with maternal serum 25(OH)D at 6 years of age. These associations were mostly absent at 14 years of age. Maternal vitamin D deficiency was positively associated with asthma at 6 years of age but only in males (OR; 3.03(1.02-9.02), p = 0.04). Conclusions: This study supports the notion that vitamin D deficiency during lung development may impact on post-natal lung growth and increase the risk of developing lung disease.03/2014; DOI:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201312-423OC
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with disease severity in asthma. We tested whether there is a causal association between vitamin D deficiency, airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). A physiologically relevant mouse model of vitamin D deficiency was developed by raising BALB/c mice on vitamin D-deficient or -replete diets. AHR was assessed by measuring lung function responses to increasing doses of inhaled methacholine. Five-micron sections from formalin-fixed lungs were used for ASM measurement and assessment of lung structure using stereological methods. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Lungs were dissected from embryonic day (E) 17.5 vitamin D-deficient and -replete fetal mice for quantification of ASM density and relative gene expression of TGF-β signaling pathway molecules. Eight-week-old adult vitamin D-deficient female mice had significantly increased airway resistance and ASM in the large airways compared with controls. Vitamin D-deficient female mice had a smaller lung volume, volume of parenchyma, and alveolar septa. Both vitamin D-deficient male and female mice had reduced TGF-β levels in BALF. Vitamin D deficiency did not have an effect on ASM density in E17.5 mice, however, expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β receptor I was downregulated in vitamin D-deficient female fetal mice. Decreased expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β receptor I during early lung development in vitamin D-deficient mice may contribute to airway remodeling and AHR in vitamin D-deficient adult female mice. This study provides a link between vitamin D deficiency and respiratory symptoms in chronic lung disease.03/2014; 2(3). DOI:10.1002/phy2.276
Article: Obesity and lung health07/2013; 62(3):357-361. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcdt.2013.07.008