Umami Compounds Are a Determinant of the Flavor of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Quality, Health and Nutrition, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, United Kingdom.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 12/2007; 55(23):9627-33. DOI: 10.1021/jf0717900
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vegetable flavor is an important factor in consumer choice but a trait that is difficult to assess quantitatively. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of the major umami compounds in boiled potato tubers, in cultivars previously assessed for sensory quality. The free levels of the major umami amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, and the 5'-nucleotides, GMP and AMP, were measured in potato samples during the cooking process. Tubers were sampled at several time points during the growing season. The levels of both glutamate and 5'-nucleotides were significantly higher in mature tubers of two Solanum phureja cultivars compared with two Solanum tuberosum cultivars. The equivalent umami concentration was calculated for five cultivars, and there were strong positive correlations with flavor attributes and acceptability scores from a trained evaluation panel, suggesting that umami is an important component of potato flavor.

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Available from: Laurence J M Ducreux, Jun 11, 2015
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    • "Analysis of 5 0 -nucleotides (AMP ? GMP) 5 0 -nucleotides were extracted with the modified methods described by Liu et al. (2006), Morris et al. (2007). Tuber tissue (0.5 g) from raw as well as microwave cooked tubers were rapidly frozen in liquid Nitrogen and homogenized into powder. "
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    ABSTRACT: Potato flavour depends on the level of umami compounds and volatiles. Major umami compounds present in potatoes are 5′-nucleotides (adenosine-5′-monophosphate: AMP and guanosine-5′-monophosphate: GMP) and amino acids (aspartic acid and glutamic acid). The level of these compounds in Indian potato cultivars has not been investigated. Therefore, a method was standardized for the detection of umami 5′-nucleotides from raw and microwave cooked tubers of forty four Indian potato cultivars using high performance liquid chromatography. In raw tubers, concentration of 5′-nucleotides ranged from 1.70 µg g−1 fr. wt. in Kufri Jawahar to 6.68 µg g−1 fr. wt. in Kufri Muthu. In microwave cooked potatoes concentration of 5′ nucleotides ranged from 2.97 µg g−1 fr. wt. in Kufri Jawahar to 9.54 µg g−1 fr. wt. in Kufri Himalini. Under microwave cooking, the concentration of 5′-nucleotides was found to increase manifolds ranging from the highest in Kufri Lalima (272 %) to the lowest in Kufri Kundan (0 %). A positive correlation existed between the level of 5′-nucleotides and organoleptic scores given by the panelists. A positive correlation was observed in the flavour of varieties having dry matter of <18 %. Further investigations on the concentration of umami compounds in Indian potato cultivars may lead to finding out better tasting cultivars for potato product development .
    Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 12/2014; 19(4):338-344. DOI:10.1007/s40502-014-0117-4
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    • "Both are very polar molecules and are, therefore, difficult to analyze directly by conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) without derivatization. Amino acids in complex matrices are usually analyzed by LC or gas chromatography (GC) using a derivatization step to make them less polar and more volatile for GC (Oruna-Concha and others 2007) or less polar to give better retention with RPLC (Morris and others 2007; "
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    ABSTRACT: An ion-pair LC-ESI-MS method was developed capable of analyzing various reported umami or umami-enhancing compounds, including glutamic acid and 5′-ribonucleotides. The method was validated using tomato and potato samples and showed overall good analytical performance with respect to selectivity, detection limit, linearity, and repeatability. The method was applied to various tomato samples resulting in concentrations of glutamic acid and 5′-ribonucleotides that were in good comparison with literature. The methodology might also be used for the discovery of new umami (enhancing) compounds in an untargeted mode. This was to a certain extent demonstrated for tomato samples by correlating all peaks observed with the ion-pair liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to sensory properties using multivariate statistics. Practical Application: This study describes the development and application of a LC-MS method, which can be used to quantify several known umami (enhancing) compounds in various foods. Furthermore, the method might be useful for the discovery of new umami (enhancing) compounds.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2011; 76(7):C1081-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02306.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    • "However, cultivated Solanum species continue to hybridize with wild potato species in South America (Ugent 1970; Grun 1990). Unlike wild Solanum species, which also offer breeders a source of genetic diversity, the cultivated Solanum species have been selected for traits of interest to humans, including large tuber yield and size, low glycoalkaloid levels, desirable flavor, short cooking times, and high nutritional value (Johns and Alonso 1990; De Maine et al. 1993; Winfield et al. 2005; Bradshaw et al. 2006; Morris et al. 2007, 2008; Ducreux et al. 2008). All cultivated Solanum species can be readily introgressed into modern potato cultivars by breeders. "
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    ABSTRACT: Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 10/2010; 121(6):1187-98. DOI:10.1007/s00122-010-1422-6 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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