Modelling and control for heart rate regulation during treadmill exercise.

Biomed. Syst. Lab., New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2006; 1:4299-302. DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2006.260573
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT This paper proposes a novel integrated approach for the identification and control of Hammerstein systems to achieve desired heart rate tracking performance for an automated treadmill system. The pseudo-random binary sequence input is employed to decouple the identification of dynamic linear part from static nonlinearity. The powerful e-insensitivity support vector regression is adopted to obtain sparse representations of the inversion of static nonlinearity in order to obtain an approximated linear model of the Hammerstein system. An H(infinity) controller is designed for the approximated linear model to achieve robust tracking performance. This new approach is applied to the design of a computer-controlled treadmill system for the regulation of heart rate during treadmill exercise. Minimizing deviations of heart rate from a preset profile is achieved by controlling the speed of the treadmill. Both conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and the proposed approaches have been employed for the controller design. The proposed algorithm achieves much better heart rate tracking performance.

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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the application of a multi-loop PID controller in an automated treadmill exercise machine. The approach is to design a computer-controlled treadmill control system for the regulation of heart rate (HR) during treadmill exercise. A single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) controller was implemented to fast track a given heart rate profile in treadmill exercise. Two separate single-input and single-output (SISO) PID control systems are initially implemented to modify either the treadmill speed or its angle of inclination in order to achieve a desired HR. The purpose of this paper is to apply a SIMO control system by implementing a control algorithm which includes the two PID controllers working simultaneously to track the desired HR profile. The performance of the SIMO and SISO control systems are compared through the closed loop responses recorded during experimentation. This would also help future development of safe treadmill exercise system.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 01/2010; 2010:2569-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise testing systems with appropriate gas exchange measurements offer important data for sport training, medical diagnosis, rehabilitation and evaluation of cardio respiratory kinetics. Measuring of basic physiological parameters during exercise test is an important task in order to establish the working capacity or physical condition of the patient and also enable derive models of important physiological parameters. Exercise testing offers the investigator the possibility to study simultaneously cellular, cardiovascular and respiratory systems and their response during accurately controlled workload. Heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency and blood pressure are automatically measured during the examination. Also oxygen and carbon dioxide content in expired air are measured and intensity of the workload is set by computer. From these data other standard parameters like oxygen uptake, CO2 expenditure etc. during the whole test could be calculated by means of personal computer. In this paper, nonlinear modelling approach is used for Hammerstein system which is applied to estimate cardiovascular system response to exercise. These models can be used in situations, where only limited parameters can be registered e.g. during out door workload testing.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate responses to training intensity during road cycling could be modelled with compact time-variant mathematical model structures. The model performance was evaluated in terms of model order (complexity), number of inputs and parameter estimation methods used (time-invariant vs. time-variant). Thirteen male cyclists performed two identical cycling tests of 27 km on the road. Uphill sections were introduced to induce dynamic variations in heart rate. The heart rate and training intensity, represented by power output and road inclination, were measured in real-time. Taking only power as system input allowed to explain the variations in heart rate in an accurate way [Formula: see text], since adding the road inclination as an additional input did not significantly improve the modelling performance [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, we demonstrated that models with first-order dynamics accurately describes the heart rate responses to power variations [Formula: see text], but that more complex second-order model structures [Formula: see text] were significantly better than the first-order model structures (P=0.028). Finally, the heart rate dynamics appeared to be time-variant, since the time-variant model structures [Formula: see text] were significantly better than the time-invariant model structures [Formula: see text]. So, compact time-variant second-order model structures could be used to model the heart rate response to training intensity as a basis for training optimisation.
    European journal of sport science. 01/2014; 14(sup1):S406-S412.

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