National surveillance for asthma--United States, 1980-2004.
ABSTRACT Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease with episodic symptoms, increased in prevalence during 1980-1996 in the United States. Asthma has been the focus of numerous provider interventions (e.g., improving adherence to asthma guidelines) and public health interventions during recent years. Although the etiology of asthma is unknown, adherence to medical treatment regimen and environmental management should reduce the occurrence of exacerbations and lessen the hardship of this disease. CDC has outlined a public health approach to asthma that includes comprehensive analyses of national surveillance data on prevalence, health-care use and mortality, and a strategy to improve the timeliness and geographic specificity of asthma surveillance data.
This report presents national data on asthma for self-reported prevalence (1980-1996 and 2001-2004); self-reported attacks (1997-2004); visits to physicians' offices (1980-2004), hospital outpatient departments (1992-2004), and emergency departments (1992-2004); hospitalizations (1980-2004); and deaths (1980-2004).
The National Health Interview Survey includes questions about asthma prevalence and asthma attacks. Physicians' office visit data are collected in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, emergency department and hospital outpatient data in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, hospitalization data in the National Hospital Discharge Survey, and death data in the Mortality component of the National Vital Statistics System.
From 1980 to 1996, 12-month asthma prevalence increased both in counts and rates, but no discernable change was identified in asthma attack estimates since 1997 or in current asthma prevalence from 2001 to 2004. During the period of increasing prevalence, patient encounters (office visits, emergency department visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalizations) for asthma increased. However, rates for these encounters, when based on the population with asthma, did not increase. Although the rate of asthma deaths increased during 1980-1995, the rate of deaths has decreased each year since 2000. During 2001-2003, current asthma prevalence was higher in children (8.5%) compared with adults (6.7%), females (8.1%) compared with males (6.2%), blacks (9.2%) compared with whites (6.9%), those of Puerto Rican descent (14.5%) compared with those of Mexican descent (3.9%), those below the federal poverty level (10.3%) compared with those at or above the federal poverty level (6.4% to 7.9%), and those residing in the Northeast (8.1%) compared with those residing in other regions (6.7% to 7.5%). Among persons with current asthma, whites and blacks were equally likely to report an attack during the preceding 12 months. Women with current asthma were more likely to report asthma attacks than men, and children were more likely than adults. The rate for asthma health-care encounters, regardless of place (physician office, emergency department, outpatient department, or hospital), when based on the population with asthma, did not differ by race. However, whites with current asthma had higher rates for physician offices, and blacks had higher rates for hospital-based sites (e.g., outpatient clinics and emergency departments).
The findings in this report suggest that from 1980 through the mid-1990s, increases in asthma prevalence played a substantial role in the increases in patient encounter measures used in asthma surveillance. Because no primary strategies for preventing asthma have been identified, efforts to control asthma exacerbations through interventions that promote adhering to proper medical regimens and reducing exposures to causes of asthma exacerbations should continue to be pursued.
SourceAvailable from: Parisa Karimi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Asthma is the most common chronic illness in children living in developed countries and the leading cause of childhood hospitalization and school absenteeism. Prevalence rates of asthma are increasing and show disparities across gender, geographic regions, and ethnic/racial groups. Common risk factors for developing childhood asthma include exposure to tobacco smoke, previous allergic reactions, a family history of asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema, living in an urban environment, obesity and lack of physical exercise, severe lower respiratory tract infections, and male gender. Asthma exacerbation in children can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens (e.g., pollen, dust mites, and animal dander), viral and bacterial infections, exercise, and exposure to airway irritants. Recent studies have shown that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a major component of fine particulate matter from combustion sources, is also associated with onset of asthma, and increasing asthmatic symptoms. In this paper, we review sources of childhood PAH exposure and the association between airborne PAH exposure and childhood asthma prevalence and exacerbation.European Journal of Epidemiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10654-015-9988-6 · 5.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of heterogeneity of estimates.Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature searching in PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for prevalence studies of mental disorders investigating probabilistic community samples of children and adolescents with standardized assessments methods that derive diagnoses according to the DSM or ICD. Meta-analytical techniques were used to estimate the prevalence rates of any mental disorder and individual diagnostic groups. A meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of population and sample characteristics, study methods, assessment procedures, and case definition in determining the heterogeneity of estimates.ResultsWe included 41 studies conducted in 27 countries from every world region. The worldwide-pooled prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4% (CI 95% 11.3–15.9). The worldwide prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 6.5% (CI 95% 4.7–9.1), any depressive disorder was 2.6% (CI 95% 1.7–3.9), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was 3.4% (CI 95% 2.6–4.5), and any disruptive disorder was 5.7% (CI 95% 4.0–8.1). Significant heterogeneity was detected for all pooled estimates. The multivariate metaregression analyses indicated that sample representativeness, sample frame, and diagnostic interview were significant moderators of prevalence estimates. Estimates did not vary as a function of geographic location of studies and year of data collection. The multivariate model explained 88.89% of prevalence heterogeneity, but residual heterogeneity was still significant. Additional meta-analysis detected significant pooled difference in prevalence rates according to requirement of funcional impairment for the diagnosis of mental disorders.Conclusions Our findings suggest that mental disorders affect a significant number of children and adolescents worldwide. The pooled prevalence estimates and the identification of sources of heterogeneity have important implications to service, training, and research planning around the world.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 02/2015; 56(3). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12381 · 5.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and inner city residents suffer a disproportionately high rate of asthma diagnosis and asthma morbidity. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the school classroom based environmental exposures that may lead to asthma morbidity in inner city school children with asthma. Within this cohort, we investigated the role of methylation at the promoter region of the beta-2-adrenergic receptor in relation to asthma morbidity. We found that high levels of methylation in the region studied was significantly associated with decreased report of dyspnea and trended towards significance for lower levels of asthma symptoms and airway obstruction. This Research Highlight discusses the findings of the recent study and the investigators' active research endeavors.