Is HIV/AIDS epidemic outcome of poverty in sub-saharan Africa?

Department of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Croatian Medical Journal (Impact Factor: 1.31). 11/2007; 48(5):605-17.
Source: PubMed


Undisputable fact is that 14000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa are being infected daily with HIV and 11000 are dying every day due to HIV/AIDS related illnesses. In this region more than 60% of the people live below UN poverty line of US$ 1 per day. Some studies have shown that poverty and HIV infection are in correlation, but none has shown whether HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa is an outcome of poverty. This article, therefore, shows that HIV is an important outcome of poverty, with sexual trade, migration, polygamy, and teenage marriages as its predictors in the Sub Saharan region. I used the examples of 20 countries with the highest poverty level in the region to demonstrate the gravity of the HIV scourge, using the data from different international databases.

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Available from: Noel Dzimnenani Mbirimtengerenji, Mar 30, 2015
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    • "ART has provided dramatic reductions in hospitalization and mortality rates. It has also increased the quality of life for many individuals living with HIV [12]. Although some studies demonstrate that the incidence of HIV-related wasting syndrome has also declined in the ART era, data from the Nutrition for Healthy Living (NFHL) cohort showed that weight loss and wasting are still common in HIV-infected people and that even a 5% weight loss in 6 months markedly increases the risk of death [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Antiretroviral Therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic manageable disease; it requires near perfect adherence rates (as high as 95%). In this study, we assessed antiretroviral treatment adherence rate and associated factors among people living with HIV in Dubti Hospital. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted within February 1-30, 2014. All HIV-infected patients above the age of 18 years who took first line Antiretroviral Therapy were eligible for inclusion of the study. Adherence Scale was used for labeling patients as adherent or nonadherent. All HIV-infected patients record data were collected from the medical records, entered, and analyzed using Epi Info 7 and SPSS Version 20. Multivariable analysis was used to identify the relative effect of explanatory variables on low adherence rate. Results. A total of 370 patients aged 18 years and above, who started ART, were included in this study. The self-reported adherence rate of the patient on ART was 81.1%. Independent predictors of adherence were treatment duration. Conclusion. Adherence rate was associated with time to ART. That is, the longer they were on ART, the lesser they adhered.
    International Scholarly Research Notices 01/2015; 2015:1-5. DOI:10.1155/2015/187360
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    • "Additionally, learner pregnancy exacerbates gender inequality and disempowerment because of the low education and low " capabilities " thereof of girls who were previously pregnant and dropped out of school (Sen, 1999). Low education has also been associated with high childhood and maternal mortality (Aderibigbe et al., 2011) and greater exposure to the risk of HIV/AIDS infection (Mbirimtengerenji, 2007) in sub-Saharan Africa. "
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    ABSTRACT: Learner pregnancy is one of the challenges impeding the unlocking of the potentials of women in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper estimated the prevalence of learner pregnancy and identified its predictors in the North West province of South Africa. The paper used cross-sectional data on 582 black women and the nested logistic regression model to analyse the data. The study found that 38% of the women become pregnant at school. Learner pregnancy was significantly higher for women who had sexual debut at <18 years; were in grades 8 and 9 or higher at age 14; attained <grade 8; had previously dropout of school; had mothers who attained <grade 8; and lived in rural neighbourhoods. We conclude that the prevalence of learner pregnancy is high in the North West province of South Africa, and an integrated approach involving individual, school, family and neighbourhood level strategies are needed to address the problem.
    African Population Studies 04/2014; 28(1):636-647. DOI:10.11564/28-0-521
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    • "These include early age at sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, transactional sex, and low condom use (Adedimeji et al., 2007; Dodoo et al., 2002; Zulu et al., 2002). It is thought that these risky sexual practices are common because of economic hardships, overcrowding, lack of security, separate spousal living arrangements , and early socialisation of children into sex due to lack of privacy and exposure to pornographic material (Greif et al., 2011; Greif and Nii-Amoo Dodoo, 2011; Mbirimtengerenji, 2007; Zulu et al., 2003). Conceptually, slum residence can be viewed as a moderating variable, which intensifies or attenuates the effects of background characteristics such as current age, sex, economic status, and education level to influence the proximate determinants of HIV status (see Fig. 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence.
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