Inactivation of Bacteriophages via Photosensitization of Fullerol Nanoparticles

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4003, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 10/2007; 41(18):6627-32. DOI: 10.1021/es0708215
Source: PubMed


The production of two reactive oxygen species through UV photosensitization of polyhydroxylated fullerene (fullerol) is shown to enhance viral inactivation rates. The production of both singlet oxygen and superoxide by fullerol in the presence of UV light is confirmed via two unique methods: electron paramagnetic resonance and reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium. These findings build on previous results both in the area of fullerene photosensitization and in the area of fullerene impact on microfauna. Results showed thatthe first-order MS2 bacteriophage inactivation rate nearly doubled due to the presence of singlet oxygen and increased by 125% due to singlet oxygen and superoxide as compared to UVA illumination alone. When fullerol and NADH are present in solution, dark inactivation of viruses occurs at nearly the same rate as that produced by UVA illumination without nanoparticles. These results suggest a potential for fullerenes to impact virus populations in both natural and engineered systems ranging from surface waters to disinfection technologies for water and wastewater treatment.

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Available from: Appala Raju Badireddy, Oct 01, 2015
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    • "Fullerenols (C 60 (OH) í µí±› ), polyhydroxyl water-soluble fullerenes, in form of polyanionic nanoparticles, have been examined in numerous in vitro and in vivo model systems [11] [12]. Special attention has been given to fullerenols with a large number of hydroxyl groups (í µí±› > 16), since they are nontoxic for the most of examined biological model systems, possess significant antioxidative properties [13], and produce radical oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and superoxide, after UV photosensitization [14]. Experiments conducted on various aquatic organisms and yeasts have proven that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNP) stimulate growth and exhibit protective effects from heavy metal induced toxicity [15] [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles’ dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number of particles at 44 nm. The effect of pure and fullerenol nanocarrier-bound biocide was evaluated in eight Aspergillus species. In mycelial growth assay, nanocomposite was more potent, as fungicidal effect of 1.04/0.6 μg mL −1 was obtained in all but one of the isolates (A. niger), while proportional concentration of pure biocide (0.6 μg mL −1 ) completely inhibited mycelial growth of only three Aspergillus species. However, conidia appear to be less susceptible to nanocomposite treatment, as lower fungistatic (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were obtained with biocide alone (MIC in range from 0.03 to 0.15 μg mL −1 and MFC from 0.075 to 0.45 μg mL −1 ). To a different degree, both substances stimulated aflatoxin B1 production and inhibited ochratoxin A synthesis. Very low mycelium biomass yield, in range from 1.0 to 3.0 mg dry weight, was documented in both biocide and nanocomposite enriched medium.
    The Scientific World Journal 07/2015; 2015(25). DOI:10.1155/2015/109262 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "Nanomaterials are excellent adsorbents, catalysts and sensors due to their large specific surface area and high reactivity. More recently, several natural and engineering nanomaterials have also been shown to have strong antimicrobial properties, including chitosan (Qi et al., 2004), silver nanoparticles (nAg) (Morones et al., 2005), photocatalytic TiO 2 (Cho et al., 2005 and Wei et al., 1994), fullerol (Badireddy et al., 2007), aqueous fullerene nanoparticles (nC60) (Lyon et al., 2006), and carbon nano tubes (CNT) (Kang et al., 2007). Unlike conventional chemical disinfectants, these antimicrobial nanomaterials are not strong oxidants and are relatively inert in water. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present work highlights the high efficiency of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) coated onto activated carbon (AC) granules in antimicrobial activities for water purification. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were prepared by polysaccharide reduction method. Silver nitrate was taken as the metal precursor and glucose as a reducing agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Activated carbon (AC) granules were coated with silver nanoparticles by impregnation of AC in super saturation solutions with different concentrations of Ag-NPs. The resulted Ag-NPs/AC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial susceptibility of the synthesized Ag-NPs/AC was investigated using inhibition zone, impregnation and column techniques against E. coli. The results reflect the high efficiency of the prepared Ag-NPs coated onto AC granules for the water disinfection from microorganism in a short period of time (maximum of 5 min) even at higher E. coli counts ~ 10 6 cfu/ml. Ag-NPs/AC was also used as column form for water purification. At a flow rate of 0.8 L/min, the output count of E. coli was zero when the input water had a bacterial load of 4 cfu/ml. Ag-NPs coated onto AC granules performed efficiently in bringing down the bacterial count of four actual polluted samples to zero. Combined with low cost and effectiveness in prohibiting the growth of E. coli, such materials should have wide applications to drinking water disinfectant.
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    • "Fullerols (1 μM) in combination with UV light have been shown to inactivate viruses (bacteriophages) to a far higher extent (100% increase) than UV light alone [44]. Fullerols have been less toxic than aggregated nonderivatized fullerenes (nC60) in a cytotoxicity study on human cell lines [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology is a science of producing and utilizing nanosized particles that are measured in nanometers. The unique size-dependent properties make the nanoparticles superior and indispensable as they show unusual physical, chemical, and properties such as conductivity, heat transfer, melting temperature, optical properties, and magnetization. Taking the advantages of these singular properties in order to develop new products is the main purpose of nanotechnology, and that is why it is regarded as "the next industrial revolution." Although nanotechnology is quite a recent discipline, there have already high number of publications which discuss this topic. However, the safety of nanomaterials is of high priority. Whereas toxicity focuses on human beings and aims at protecting individuals, ecotoxicity looks at various trophic organism levels and intend to protect populations and ecosystems. Ecotoxicity includes natural uptake mechanisms and the influence of environmental factors on bioavailability (and thereby on toxicity). The present paper focuses on the ecotoxic effects and mechanisms of nanomaterials on microorganisms, plants, and other organisms including humans.
    03/2013; 2013(10):574648. DOI:10.1155/2013/574648
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