Advances in the pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 9.47). 12/2007; 62(9):951-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.08.009
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsive people have a strong urge to act without thinking. It is sometimes regarded as a positive trait but rash impulsiveness is also widely present in clinical disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug dependence, mania, and antisocial behaviour. Contemporary research has begun to make major inroads into unravelling the brain mechanisms underlying impulsive behaviour with a prominent focus on the limbic cortico-striatal systems. With this progress has come the understanding that impulsivity is a multi-faceted behavioural trait involving neurally and psychologically diverse elements. We discuss the significance of this heterogeneity for clinical disorders expressing impulsive behaviour and the pivotal contribution made by the brain dopamine and serotonin systems in the aetiology and treatment of behavioural syndromes expressing impulsive symptoms.
    Neuroscience 04/2012; 215:42-58. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.03.065 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the early 70s electrochemistry has been used as a powerful analytical technique for monitoring electroactive species in living organisms. In particular, after extremely rapid evolution of new micro and nanotechnology it has been established as an invaluable technique ranging from experiments in vivo to measurement of exocytosis during communication between cells under in vitro conditions. This review highlights recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors for selective sensing of one of the most important neurotransmitters-dopamine. Dopamine is an electroactive catecholamine neurotransmitter, abundant in the mammalian central nervous system, affecting both cognitive and behavioral functions of living organisms. We have not attempted to cover a large time-span nor to be comprehensive in presenting the vast literature devoted to electrochemical dopamine sensing. Instead, we have focused on the last five years, describing recent progress as well as showing some problems and directions for future development.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 12/2012; 405(11). DOI:10.1007/s00216-012-6578-2 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is one of the core symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, has been used to investigate the neurobiology of impulsivity, although this model has been questioned over concerns that use of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) as a comparison strain may exaggerate effects. The present study compared SHR, WKY and standard, outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats on a delay discounting task where the primary measure was mean adjusted delay (MAD), or the indifference point (in sec) between choice of an immediate delivery of 1 grain-based pellet versus 3 pellets delivered after varying delays. The acute dose effects of the ADHD medications amphetamine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (1.0-10 mg/kg) were then determined; in addition, the effect of the dopamine receptor antagonist fluphenazine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) was also assessed for comparison with the indirect agonists. While there were no strain differences in the rate of task acquisition or stabilization of baseline MAD scores, SHR had significantly lower MAD scores than WKY but not SD due to the greater individual variability of MAD scores in SD. Although amphetamine did not alter MAD scores in any strain, methylphenidate selectively increased MAD scores in WKY and fluphenazine selectively increased MAD scores in SHR. WKY were also more sensitive than SHR and SD to the response-impairing effects of each drug. The finding that SHR showed a decrease in impulsivity following fluphenazine, but not following either amphetamine or methylphenidate, suggests that delay discounting in SHR may not represent a valid predictive model for screening effective ADHD medications in humans.
    Brain research 06/2011; 1396:45-53. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.04.040 · 2.83 Impact Factor