Comparative oncology today

Comparative Oncology Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 37 Convent Drive, Room 2144, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice (Impact Factor: 1.04). 12/2007; 37(6):1023-32; v. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2007.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The value of comparative oncology has been increasingly recognized in the field of cancer research, including the identification of cancer-associated genes; the study of environmental risk factors, tumor biology, and progression; and, perhaps most importantly, the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics. The fruits of this effort are expected to be the creation of better and more specific drugs to benefit veterinary and human patients who have cancer. The state of the comparative oncology field is outlined in this article, with an emphasis on cancer in dogs.

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    ABSTRACT: Human cancer is so complex that in vivo preclinical models are needed if effective therapies are to be developed. Naturally occurring cancers in companion animals are therefore a great resource, as shown by the remarkable growth that comparative oncology has seen over the last 30 years. Cancer has become a leading cause of death in companion animals now that more pets are living long enough to develop the disease. Furthermore, more owners are seeking advanced and novel therapies for their pets as they are very much considered family members. Living in the same environments, pets and humans are often afflicted by the same types of cancer which show similar behavior and, in some species, express the same antigen molecules. The treatment of pet tumors using novel therapies is of compelling translational significance.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 12/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1007/s00262-014-1645-5 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the important progress obtained in the treatment of some pets' malignancies, new treatments need to be developed. Being critical in cancer control and progression, the immune system's appropriate modulation may provide effective therapeutic options. In this review we summarize the outcomes of published immunogene therapy veterinary clinical trials reported by many research centers. A variety of tumors such as canine melanoma, soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcoma and lymphoma, feline fibrosarcoma, and equine melanoma were subjected to different treatment approaches. Both viral and mainly nonviral vectors were used to deliver gene products as cytokines, xenogeneic tumor associated antigens, specific ligands, and proapoptotic regulatory factors. In some cases autologous, allogenic, or xenogeneic transgenic cytokine producing cells were assayed. In general terms, minor or no adverse collateral effects appeared during this kind of therapies and treated patients usually displayed a better course of the disease (longer survival, delayed or suppressed recurrence or metastatic spread, and improvement of the quality of life). This suggests the utility of these methodologies as standard adjuvant treatments. The encouraging outcomes obtained in companion animals support their ready application in veterinary clinical oncology and serve as preclinical proof of concept and safety assay for future human gene therapy trials.
    01/2014; 2014:718520. DOI:10.1155/2014/718520
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    ABSTRACT: The great variation in morphological phenotypes displayed by dogs offers not only excellent opportunities for genetic analyses but also a challenge regarding between-breed and even within-breed variation. Also, behavioral responses may vary between individuals, and are to be taken into account in experimental situations. To our knowledge, no standardized test for scoring personality characteristics (TFPC) in dogs maintained for research under controlled conditions has yet been developed. The present article describes a protocol consisting of 9 test situations that are likely to arise in experimental contexts. The intent was to establish an easy-to-use standardized test protocol. Sixteen beagles were used, all housed in constant and controlled conditions. The results revealed considerable individual differences in response to certain stimuli. The largest within-group variation was found when being caged; the responses varied from passivity to escape attempts (score range: 2-5 in a 5-step scale). Substantial variation was also seen in locomotion and food consumption after exposure to stress (score range: 1-5 in a 5-step scale). In a new environment, the females showed more frequent changes in attention (focusing) compared with males (P < 0.01). There was an age-related reaction to sudden sounds (Spearman rsp = −0.52, P < 0.05). We also describe application of the TFPC to a study of food intake in response to pancreatic polypeptide performed with 6 of the male dogs. A within-group rank-order procedure was used, and interesting correlations between personality characteristics and food intake behavior were identified. We discuss how the TFPC may contribute to improvement of experimental studies in dogs.
    Journal of Veterinary Behavior Clinical Applications and Research 11/2012; 7(6):327-338. DOI:10.1016/j.jveb.2012.01.007 · 1.22 Impact Factor


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