Comparative Oncology Today

Comparative Oncology Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 37 Convent Drive, Room 2144, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice (Impact Factor: 0.82). 12/2007; 37(6):1023-32; v. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2007.08.003
Source: PubMed


The value of comparative oncology has been increasingly recognized in the field of cancer research, including the identification of cancer-associated genes; the study of environmental risk factors, tumor biology, and progression; and, perhaps most importantly, the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics. The fruits of this effort are expected to be the creation of better and more specific drugs to benefit veterinary and human patients who have cancer. The state of the comparative oncology field is outlined in this article, with an emphasis on cancer in dogs.

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    • "The frequency of cancer occurrence in dogs is twice that in humans (Rungsipipat, 2003). There are about 70 million pet dogs in USA of which about 10% are diagnosed with naturally occurring tumors (Paoloni and Khanna, 2007). No data are available on the population of dogs in Grenada or West Indies. "
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective study on 462 cases of tumor conditions in dogs was carried out in Pathology laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, St George’s University, Grenada, West Indies for a period of ten years, from 2001 to 2010. Out of these 462 tumors, 242 and 220 tumors were recorded from males and females of varying age groups respectively. Among all these tumor conditions, the occurrence of haemangiosarcoma was found to be highest (13%) followed by mammary gland tumors (10.8%), transmissible venereal tumors (7.6%), cutaneous hemangioma (7.4%), cutaneous histiocytoma (6.3%), lymphoma and papilloma (5.0% each), mast cell tumor (4.5%), lipoma and squamous cell carcinoma (3.5% each), melanocytoma (3.2%), fibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma and melanoma (2.6% each), fibroma (2.2%) and others including basal cell tumor and chondrosarcoma (1.5% each), seminoma (1.3%), plasmacytoma (1.1%), perianal gland adenoma (0.9%) and adenocarcinoma (0.6%), hepatocellular carcinoma (0.6%), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.6%), pheochromocytoma (0.4%), sertoli cell tumor (0.2%), etc. Age–wise, the highest tumor occurence (28.1%) was in the >8–12 year age group, followed by 25.8% in >5–8 year, 19.7% in >12 year, 14.1% in >3–5 year and 10.2% in >1–3 year age groups. Mixed breed dogs showed highest tumor incidence (62.6%) followed by German shepherd (6.5%), Labrador Retriever (5.6%), Rottweiler (4.3%), Doberman Pinscher (3.2%), Pompek (3.0%) and Pitbull (2.2%).
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    • "Cancer in client-owned dogs models human malignancies due to their genetic similarity, large size, spontaneous occurrence of a broad diversity of tumor types, and similar treatment modalities1617. The etiology of spontaneous canine and human cancers is analogous as both arise from genetic abnormalities or predisposition and common environmental exposures. NHL is the most common canine malignancy accounting for up to 24% of all reported neoplasms1819. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical observations reveal that an augmented pace of T-cell recovery after chemotherapy correlates with improved tumor-free survival, suggesting the add-back of T cells after chemotherapy may improve outcomes. To evaluate adoptive immunotherapy treatment for B-lineage non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we expanded T cells from client-owned canines diagnosed with NHL on artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of human interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21. Graded doses of autologous T cells were infused after CHOP chemotherapy and persisted for 49 days, homed to tumor, and significantly improved survival. Serum thymidine kinase changes predicted T-cell engraftment, while anti-tumor effects correlated with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and granzyme B expression in manufactured T cells. Therefore, chemotherapy can be used to modulate infused T-cell responses to enhance anti-tumor effects. The companion canine model has translational implications for human immunotherapy which can be readily exploited since clinical-grade canine and human T cells are propagated using identical approaches.
    Scientific Reports 02/2012; 2:249. DOI:10.1038/srep00249 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    • "This genomic sequencing data, together with the development of the Affymetrix Canine Version 2.0 GeneChip®, provided the opportunity to develop a canine normal tissue gene expression database. One of the goals of the National Cancer Institute's Comparative Oncology Program (NCI-COP) is to include companion animals with cancer in the mainstream of cancer research [1], [5], [29]. One of the mechanisms for accomplishing this goal is through careful genomic and proteomic analysis of cancers in dogs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.
    PLoS ONE 05/2011; 6(5):e17107. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0017107 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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