Polychlorinated biphenyl effects on avian hepatic enzyme induction and thyroid function.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0406, USA.
General and Comparative Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 03/2008; 155(3):650-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.09.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) decrease thyroid function in laboratory rodents by inducing activity of a liver enzyme, uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), thereby increasing thyroxine (T4) clearance. This loss of T4 can lead to hypothyroidism. In this study, an assay was validated for measuring UDP-GT activity toward T4 in Japanese quail. UDP-GT induction by Aroclor 1254 was evaluated in quail, and responses of quail and mice were compared. In Experiment 1, Japanese quail and Balb/c mice were dosed orally with vehicle or Aroclor 1254 (250 or 500mg/kg) and sacrificed 5days later. In Experiment 2, Japanese quail were dosed orally with vehicle or Aroclor 1254 (500mg/kg) and sacrificed 5 or 21days later. UDP-GT capacity (pmol T4 glucuronidated by the liver/minper g body weight) increased with PCB exposure with all doses and exposure times in both species. Plasma T4 tended to decrease (not significant) with both PCB doses and exposure times in quail and was significantly decreased with both doses in mice. Quail did not become hypothyroid at either dose or exposure time. In contrast, mice did become hypothyroid after a 5-day exposure. It is unclear how PCBs affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in quail, but activation of the HPT axis appears to be inhibited in mice. We believe this is the first demonstration of a T4-specific, avian UDP-GT response to PCBs. However, this avian response was less than that in mice with equivalent doses of PCBs. Thus, thyroid function in birds appears to be less vulnerable to PCBs than in mammals.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT are widespread environmental persistent organic pollutants that have various adverse effects on reproduction, development and endocrine function. In order to elucidate effects of PCBs and DDT on thyroid hormone homeostasis, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with PCB153 and p,p'-DDE intraperitoneally (ip) for five consecutive days and sacrificed within 24 h after the last dose. Results indicated that after combined exposure to PCB153 and p,p'-DDE, total thyroxine , free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in serum were decreased, whereas free triiodothyronine and thyrotropin-releasing hormone were not affected. Thyroglobulin and transthyretin levels in serum were significantly reduced. mRNA expression of deiodinases 2 (D2) was also suppressed, while D1 and D3 levels were not significantly influenced after combined exposure. PCB153 and p,p'-DDE induced hepatic enzymes, UDPGTs, CYP1A1, CYP2B1, and CYP3A1 mRNA expressions being significantly elevated. Moreover, TRα1, TRβ1, and TRHr expressions in the hypothalamus displayed increasing trends after combined exposure to PCB153 and p,p'-DDE. Taken together, observed results indicate that PCB153 and p,p'-DDE could disorder thyroid hormone homeostasis via thyroglobulin, deiodinase 2, transthyretin, hepatic enzymes, and hormone receptors.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 06/2014; 21(19). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3093-3 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2’4,4’,5,5’-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken.
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 02/2015; 39(2). DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2015.01.016 · 1.86 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014