Microcytosis in ank/ank mice and the role of ANKH in promoting erythroid differentiation.
ABSTRACT Progressive ankylosis (Ank and the human homolog, ANKH) is a transmembrane protein which regulates transport of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). ank/ank mice with a mutated ank gene, have calcification and bone ankylosis of the affected joints. In the course of studying these mutant mice, we found that they have microcytosis. These mutant mice have lower mean red blood cell volume (MCV) and lower hemoglobin content in red cells (mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH) than normal mice. Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, we showed that Ank was expressed in the E/Meg bipotent precursor, BFU-E, CFU-E, but there was no Ank expression in the hemoglobinizing erythroblasts. Stable ANKH transfectants in K562 cells highly expressed two immature erythroid cell markers, E-cadherin and endoglin. Enhanced Erythropoietin (Epo) expression and downregulation of SHP-1 were detected in these transfectants. Consequently, the autocrine Epo-EpoR signaling pathway was activated, as evidenced by higher p-Tyr JAK2, p-Tyr EpoR and p-Tyr STAT5B in the ANKH transfectants. Our results revealed a novel function of ANKH in the promotion of early erythroid differentiation in K562 cells. We also showed that ank/ank mice have lower serum levels of Epo than the normal littermates, and this is the likely cause of microcytosis in these mutant mice.
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ABSTRACT: The TP73 gene gives rise to transactivation domain-p73 isoforms (TAp73) as well as DeltaNp73 variants with a truncated N terminus. Although TAp73alpha and -beta proteins are capable of inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation, DeltaNp73 acts in many cell types as a dominant-negative repressor of p53 and TAp73. It has been proposed that p73 is involved in myeloid differentiation, and its altered expression is involved in leukemic degeneration. However, there is little evidence as to which p73 variants (TA or DeltaN) are expressed during differentiation and whether specific p73 isoforms have the capacity to induce, or hinder, this differentiation in leukemia cells. In this study we identify GATA1 as a direct transcriptional target of TAp73alpha. Furthermore, TAp73alpha induces GATA1 activity, and it is required for erythroid differentiation. Additionally, we describe a functional cooperation between TAp73 and DeltaNp73 in the context of erythroid differentiation in human myeloid cells, K562 and UT-7. Moreover, the impaired expression of GATA1 and other erythroid genes in the liver of p73KO embryos, together with the moderated anemia observed in p73KO young mice, suggests a physiological role for TP73 in erythropoiesis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2009; 284(32):21139-56. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Aberrant axial mineralization precedes spinal ankylosis: a molecular imaging study in ank/ank mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is made from a combination of clinical features and the presence of radiographic evidence that may be detected only after many years of inflammatory back pain. It is not uncommon to have a diagnosis confirmed 5 to 10 years after the initial onset of symptoms. Development of a more-sensitive molecular imaging technology to detect structural changes in the joints would lead to earlier diagnosis and quantitative tracking of ankylosis progression. Progressive ankylosis (ank/ank) mice have a loss of function in the Ank gene, which codes for a regulator of PPi transport. In this study, we used these ank/ank mutant mice to assess a noninvasive, quantitative measure of joint ankylosis with near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging in vivo. Three age groups (8, 12, and 18 weeks) of ank/ank (15 mice) and wild-type littermates (12 +/+ mice) were assessed histologically and radiographically. Before imaging, OsteoSense 750 (bisphosphonate pamidronate) was injected i.v. Whole-body images were analyzed by using the multispectral Maestro imaging system. OsteoSense 750 signals in the paw joints were higher in ank/ank mice in all three age groups compared with controls. In the spine, significantly higher OsteoSense 750 signals were detected early, in 8-week-old ank/ank mice compared with controls, although minimal radiographic differences were noted at this time point. The molecular imaging changes in the ank/ank spine (8 weeks) were supported by histologic changes, including calcium apatite crystals at the edge of the vertebral bodies and new syndesmophyte formation. Changes in joint pathology of ank/ank mice, as evaluated by histologic and radiographic means, are qualitative, but only semiquantitative. In contrast, molecular imaging provides a quantitative assessment. Ankylosis in ank/ank mice developed simultaneously in distal and axial joints, contrary to the previous notion that it is a centripetal process. NIR imaging might be feasible for early disease diagnosis and for monitoring disease progression in ankylosing spondylitis.Arthritis research & therapy 10/2011; 13(5):R163. · 4.27 Impact Factor
Article: Identification of the inorganic pyrophosphate metabolizing, ATP substituting pathway in mammalian spermatozoa.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is generated by ATP hydrolysis in the cells and also present in extracellular matrix, cartilage and bodily fluids. Fueling an alternative pathway for energy production in cells, PPi is hydrolyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) in a highly exergonic reaction that can under certain conditions substitute for ATP-derived energy. Recombinant PPA1 is used for energy-regeneration in the cell-free systems used to study the zymology of ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the role of sperm-borne proteasomes in mammalian fertilization. Inspired by an observation of reduced in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates in the presence of external, recombinant PPA1, this study reveals, for the first time, the presence of PPi, PPA1 and PPi transporter, progressive ankylosis protein ANKH in mammalian spermatozoa. Addition of PPi during porcine IVF increased fertilization rates significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorometric assay detected high levels of PPi in porcine seminal plasma, oviductal fluid and spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence detected PPA1 in the postacrosomal sheath (PAS) and connecting piece of boar spermatozoa; ANKH was present in the sperm head PAS and equatorial segment. Both ANKH and PPA1 were also detected in human and mouse spermatozoa, and in porcine spermatids. Higher proteasomal-proteolytic activity, indispensable for fertilization, was measured in spermatozoa preserved with PPi. The identification of an alternative, PPi dependent pathway for ATP production in spermatozoa elevates our understanding of sperm physiology and sets the stage for the improvement of semen extenders, storage media and IVF media for animal biotechnology and human assisted reproductive therapies.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34524. · 4.09 Impact Factor