Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, Al Khod 123, Oman.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 03/2008; 46(2):409-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.085
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments that include arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases and helminthiasis. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger, and several scientific investigations aimed at isolation and identification of active constituents of ginger, scientific verification of its pharmacological actions and of its constituents, and verification of the basis of the use of ginger in some of several diseases and conditions. This article aims at reviewing the most salient recent reports on these investigations. The main pharmacological actions of ginger and compounds isolated therefrom include immuno-modulatory, anti-tumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic and anti-emetic actions. Ginger is a strong anti-oxidant substance and may either mitigate or prevent generation of free radicals. It is considered a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects. More studies are required in animals and humans on the kinetics of ginger and its constituents and on the effects of their consumption over a long period of time.

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Available from: Badreldin H. Ali, May 22, 2015
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    • "Thus, the demand for natural antioxidants has increased due to the growing interest in the food and pharmaceutical industries for development of drug which has less side effects and potent against various diseases (Yeh et al., 2014). From literature survey , it was found that the ginger contains a number of bioactive phenolic and non phenolic constituents, which in pure form or its derivatives might be potentially useful in the treatment of various diseases like oxidative stress, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, gout, gastric ulcer, hypercholesterolemia, pain, microbial or viral infection (Chrubasik et al., 2005; Badreldin et al., 2008), here we presented many benefits of ginger from reviewed literature and formulated this study. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the HPTLC and HPLC analysis of ginger extract for bioactive constituents with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory properties. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a spice used as a medicinal plant in many countries. We are the first to report the HPTLC analysis of ginger extract and analysis of their active principles with comparative antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. The five fractions were obtained by using different polarity solvents with selective extraction procedure from ginger rhizomes and found that they revealed the difference in bioactivity against studied parameters. The ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed significant antioxidant activity studied by DPPH, FRAP, and H2O2 assay (IC50 ± SEM [μg/mL]: 6.8 ± 0.6, 12 ± 0.2, and 20 ± 2.5, respectively). In the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, the antioxidant potentials of EAE and the water extract (WE) (% inhibition: 76% and 74%, respectively) were higher than those of the ethanol extract (EE), diethyl ether extract (DEE), and n-butanol extract (NBE). Regarding anti-inflammatory activity, EAE exhibited greater inhibition of lipoxidase (80%), and β-glucuronidase (78%) compared to hyaluronidase (46%) and diene-conjugates (37%). Chromatographic analysis revealed that several principal substances including 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 6-paradol were responsible for the biological activities for ginger. Compound 6-gingerol revealed high FRAP-reducing activity (IC50 ± SEM [μM]: 5 ± 0.4). 6-Gingerol also significantly inhibited the activities of xanthine oxidase (85%), lipoxidase (87%), β-glucuronidase (85%), and hyaluronidase (56%), respectively. These results indicated that ginger rhizome fractions and its active constituents having promising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-gout properties and might be used as potential natural drug against oxidative stress and inflammatory related diseases after successful in vivo study and clinical trials.
    Industrial Crops and Products 08/2015; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.03.033 · 2.84 Impact Factor
    • "Research over the last decade has shown that ginger has the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of a myriad of diseases through modulation of biological activities (Rahmani et al., 2014). The main pharmacological actions of ginger phytochemicals include immuno-modulatory, antitumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antihyperglycaemic, antilipidemic and antifungal activities (Kim et al., 2005; Wu, 2007; Ali et al., 2008; Hsiang et al., 2013; Ojaghian et al., 2014). Ginger rhizome contains approximately 1.0–2.5% pungent constituents (nonvolatile homologous polyphenols ) that give this spice its pungent or hot flavour (Zick et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenolic-rich fraction obtained from locally produced dry ginger powder in Brahmaputra valley, India, and commercially available dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder consisted of [6]-gingerol (41.9%), [6]-shogaol (24.3%), 1-dehydro-6-gingerdione (8.6%), [8]-gingerol (7.2%), [10]-gingerol (5.1%), [6]-paradol (5.9%) and [4]-gingerol (3.6%). Traces of methyl-[6]-gingerol and methyl-[8]-gingerol (both at 1.8%) were also detected. The fraction exhibited high antioxidant capacity [total phenolics (TP), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA assay)], effectively inhibited isolated digestive enzymes (α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and angiotensin converting enzyme) and inhibited the proliferation of colon (HT29; IC50 of 1.06 ± 0.02 mg mL−1) and gastric (AGS IC50 of 1.29 ± 0.03 mg mL−1) adenocarcinoma cells, without affecting the proliferation of their nontransformed counterparts (IC50 > 2.0 mg mL−1). This case study demonstrates that locally produced and commercially available dry ginger powder from Brahmaputra valley, India, retains numerous food components that may enhance human health.
    International Journal of Food Science & Technology 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/ijfs.12889 · 1.38 Impact Factor
    • "In addition to these active substances, isoorientin (C-glycosylflavone) and gentiopicroside (secoiridoid glycoside) were isolated from different species of Gentiana and were shown to have antioxidant properties [24] [25]. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), belonging to a tropical and sub-tropical family Zingiberaceae, originating in South-East Asia and introduced to many parts of the globe, has been cultivated for thousands of years as a spice and for medicinal purposes [26] [27]. It has been used extensively for more than 2500 years in China for headaches, nausea and colds [28] and in Mediterranean [29] and Western parts in herbal medicine practice. "
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the protective effects of Gentiana lutea extracts (GLEx) and 6-Gingerol (6-G) on clastogenicity of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(α) anthracene (DMBA) in vitro on HepG2 cells using the frequencies of induced micronuclei (MN) as the end point. Pre-, post- and simultaneous treatments with GLEx or 6-G and the carcinogens were carried out. Both GLEx post- and simultaneous treatments reduced the frequencies of MN induced by MNNG and DMBA. Probably this effect is due to an increase of cytostasis and a physico-chemical interaction between GLEx and DMBA under simultaneous treatment. Pre- and simultaneous treatments with 6-G significantly reduced the yield of MNNG-induced micronuclei without affecting % of cytostasis. Simultaneous treatment with 6-G plus DMBA resulted in reduction in the frequency of MN and an increase in cytotoxicity compared to sample treated alone with DMBA, whereas a post-treatment, caused a significant decrease in the yield of MN compared with DMBA alone without any cytotoxic effect. These results are compared with our earlier data obtained in the same system with other phytochemicals. It is concluded that for a critical evaluation of the protective effects of phytochemicals, both the influence on the induced MN and induced cytostasis have to be considered.
    Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.06.016 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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