Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, Al Khod 123, Oman.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 03/2008; 46(2):409-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.085
Source: PubMed


Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments that include arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases and helminthiasis. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger, and several scientific investigations aimed at isolation and identification of active constituents of ginger, scientific verification of its pharmacological actions and of its constituents, and verification of the basis of the use of ginger in some of several diseases and conditions. This article aims at reviewing the most salient recent reports on these investigations. The main pharmacological actions of ginger and compounds isolated therefrom include immuno-modulatory, anti-tumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic and anti-emetic actions. Ginger is a strong anti-oxidant substance and may either mitigate or prevent generation of free radicals. It is considered a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects. More studies are required in animals and humans on the kinetics of ginger and its constituents and on the effects of their consumption over a long period of time.

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Available from: Badreldin H. Ali, May 22, 2015
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    • "Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) has been used for thousands of years as food condiments and medicines (Shukla and Singh, 2007). It contains biological active phytochemicals such as gingerols, shagoals, paradols and zingerone (Ali et al., 2008). Abdullah et al. (2010) elucidated that ginger extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells by arresting at G0G1 cell cycle. "
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    ABSTRACT: genesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) . The aim of this study was to elucidate whether combination of Gelam honey and ginger might have chemopreventive properties in HT29 colon cancer cells by modulating the mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways. Treatment with Gelam honey and ginger reduced the viability of the HT29 cells dose dependently with IC50 values of 88 mg/ml and 2.15 mg/ml respectively, their while the combined treatment of 2 mg/ml of ginger with 31 mg/ml of Gelam honey inhibited growth of most HT29 cells. Gelam honey, ginger and combination induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner with the combined treatment exhibiting the highest apoptosis rate. The combined treatment downregulated the gene expressions of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, Rictor, β-catenin, Gsk3β, Tcf4 and cyclin D1 while cytochrome C and caspase 3 genes were shown to be upregulated. In conclusion, the combination of Gelam honey and ginger may serve as a potential therapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer through inhibiton of mTOR, Wnt/β catenin signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis pathway. Keywords: mTOR - Wnt/β catenin - apoptosis - combination - HT29 colon cancer cell
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 10/2015; 16(15):6549-6556. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6549 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, the demand for natural antioxidants has increased due to the growing interest in the food and pharmaceutical industries for development of drug which has less side effects and potent against various diseases (Yeh et al., 2014). From literature survey , it was found that the ginger contains a number of bioactive phenolic and non phenolic constituents, which in pure form or its derivatives might be potentially useful in the treatment of various diseases like oxidative stress, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, gout, gastric ulcer, hypercholesterolemia, pain, microbial or viral infection (Chrubasik et al., 2005; Badreldin et al., 2008), here we presented many benefits of ginger from reviewed literature and formulated this study. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the HPTLC and HPLC analysis of ginger extract for bioactive constituents with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory properties. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a spice used as a medicinal plant in many countries. We are the first to report the HPTLC analysis of ginger extract and analysis of their active principles with comparative antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. The five fractions were obtained by using different polarity solvents with selective extraction procedure from ginger rhizomes and found that they revealed the difference in bioactivity against studied parameters. The ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed significant antioxidant activity studied by DPPH, FRAP, and H2O2 assay (IC50 ± SEM [μg/mL]: 6.8 ± 0.6, 12 ± 0.2, and 20 ± 2.5, respectively). In the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, the antioxidant potentials of EAE and the water extract (WE) (% inhibition: 76% and 74%, respectively) were higher than those of the ethanol extract (EE), diethyl ether extract (DEE), and n-butanol extract (NBE). Regarding anti-inflammatory activity, EAE exhibited greater inhibition of lipoxidase (80%), and β-glucuronidase (78%) compared to hyaluronidase (46%) and diene-conjugates (37%). Chromatographic analysis revealed that several principal substances including 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 6-paradol were responsible for the biological activities for ginger. Compound 6-gingerol revealed high FRAP-reducing activity (IC50 ± SEM [μM]: 5 ± 0.4). 6-Gingerol also significantly inhibited the activities of xanthine oxidase (85%), lipoxidase (87%), β-glucuronidase (85%), and hyaluronidase (56%), respectively. These results indicated that ginger rhizome fractions and its active constituents having promising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-gout properties and might be used as potential natural drug against oxidative stress and inflammatory related diseases after successful in vivo study and clinical trials.
    Industrial Crops and Products 08/2015; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.03.033 · 2.84 Impact Factor
    • "Research over the last decade has shown that ginger has the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of a myriad of diseases through modulation of biological activities (Rahmani et al., 2014). The main pharmacological actions of ginger phytochemicals include immuno-modulatory, antitumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antihyperglycaemic, antilipidemic and antifungal activities (Kim et al., 2005; Wu, 2007; Ali et al., 2008; Hsiang et al., 2013; Ojaghian et al., 2014). Ginger rhizome contains approximately 1.0–2.5% pungent constituents (nonvolatile homologous polyphenols ) that give this spice its pungent or hot flavour (Zick et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenolic-rich fraction obtained from locally produced dry ginger powder in Brahmaputra valley, India, and commercially available dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder consisted of [6]-gingerol (41.9%), [6]-shogaol (24.3%), 1-dehydro-6-gingerdione (8.6%), [8]-gingerol (7.2%), [10]-gingerol (5.1%), [6]-paradol (5.9%) and [4]-gingerol (3.6%). Traces of methyl-[6]-gingerol and methyl-[8]-gingerol (both at 1.8%) were also detected. The fraction exhibited high antioxidant capacity [total phenolics (TP), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA assay)], effectively inhibited isolated digestive enzymes (α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and angiotensin converting enzyme) and inhibited the proliferation of colon (HT29; IC50 of 1.06 ± 0.02 mg mL−1) and gastric (AGS IC50 of 1.29 ± 0.03 mg mL−1) adenocarcinoma cells, without affecting the proliferation of their nontransformed counterparts (IC50 > 2.0 mg mL−1). This case study demonstrates that locally produced and commercially available dry ginger powder from Brahmaputra valley, India, retains numerous food components that may enhance human health.
    International Journal of Food Science & Technology 07/2015; 50(10). DOI:10.1111/ijfs.12889 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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