Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight in South Africa in 2000.

Burden of Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, Cape Town.
South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde (Impact Factor: 1.7). 08/2007; 97(8 Pt 2):683-90.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight using the body mass index (BMI), by age and sex, in South Africa in 2000.
World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Re-analysis of the 1998 South Africa Demographic and Health Survey data provided mean BMI estimates by age and sex. Population-attributable fractions were calculated and applied to revised burden of disease estimates. Monte Carlo simulation-modeling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis.
South Africa.
Adults >or= 30 years of age.
Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, hypertensive disease, osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and selected cancers.
Overall, 87% of type 2 diabetes, 68% of hypertensive disease, 61% of endometrial cancer, 45% of ischaemic stroke, 38% of ischaemic heart disease, 31% of kidney cancer, 24% of osteoarthritis, 17% of colon cancer, and 13% of postmenopausal breast cancer were attributable to a BMI >or= 21 kg/m2. Excess body weight is estimated to have caused 36,504 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 31,018 - 38,637) or 7% (95% uncertainty interval 6.0 - 7.4%) of all deaths in 2000, and 462,338 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval 396,512 - 478,847) or 2.9% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval 2.4 - 3.0%). The burden in females was approximately double that in males.
This study shows the importance of recognizing excess body weight as a major risk to health, particularly among females, highlighting the need to develop, implement and evaluate comprehensive interventions to achieve lasting change in the determinants and impact of excess body weight.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence, associations and management of hypertension in the 25-74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the change between 1990 and 2008/09 in 25-64-year-olds. In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined by administered questionnaires, clinical measurements and fasting biochemical analyses. Logistic regression models evaluated the associations with hypertension. There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86%) in 2008/09. Age-standardised hypertension prevalence was 38.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 35.6-42.3) with similar rates in men and women. Among 25-64-year-olds, hypertension prevalence was significantly higher in 2008/09 (35.6%, 95% CI: 32.3-39.0) than in 1990 (21.6%, 95% CI: 18.6-24.9). In 2008/09, hypertension odds increased with older age, family history of hypertension, higher body mass index, problematic alcohol intake, physical inactivity and urbanisation. Among hypertensive participants, significantly more women than men were detected (69.5% vs. 32.7%), treated (55.7% vs. 21.9%) and controlled (32.4% vs. 10.4%) in 2008/09. There were minimal changes from 1990 except for improved control in 25-64-year-old women (1990∶14.1% vs. 2008/09∶31.5%). The high and rising hypertension burden in this population, its association with modifiable risk factors and the sub-optimal care provided highlight the urgent need to prioritise hypertension management. Innovative solutions with efficient and cost-effective healthcare delivery as well as population-based strategies are required.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e78567. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, impact the expression of the cytokine genes TNFA and IL-6, and alter TNFα and IL-6 production. In addition, sequence variants in these genes have also been shown to alter their gene expression and plasma levels, and are associated with obesity, measures of adiposity and serum lipid concentrations. When interactions between dietary fatty acids and TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid were analyzed, both the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids modulated the relationship between TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid profiles, thereby impacting the association between phenotype and genotype. Researching these diet-gene interactions more extensively, and understanding the role of ethnicity as a confounder in these relationships, may contribute to a better understanding of the inter-individual variability in the obese phenotype.
    Nutrients 01/2013; 5(5):1672-1705. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Women of African ancestry, particularly those living in industrialized countries, experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to their white counterparts. Similarly, obesity and insulin resistance, which are major risk factors for T2D, are greater in black compared to white women. The exact mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not known. This paper will focus on the role of adipose tissue biology. Firstly, the characteristic body fat distribution of women of African ancestry will be discussed, followed by the depot-specific associations with insulin resistance. Factors involved in adipose tissue biology and their relation to insulin sensitivity will then be explored, including the role of sex hormones, glucocorticoid metabolism, lipolysis and adipogenesis, and their consequent effects on adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally the role of ectopic fat deposition will be discussed. The paper proposes directions for future research, in particular highlighting the need for longitudinal and/or intervention studies to better understand the mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of insulin resistance and T2D in women of African ancestry.
    Journal of obesity 01/2013; 2013:952916.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 17, 2014