Angiotensin II (AII) has been reported to induce leukocyte adhesion to endothelium through up-regulation of P-selectin surface expression. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unknown. P-selectin is stored in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), large secretory granules, in endothelial cells. In this study, we examined the role of protein kinase D (PKD), a newly identified regulator of protein transport, in AII-induced WPB exocytosis and the resultant P-selectin surface expression. We demonstrated that PKD2 was rapidly activated by AII in endothelial cells through phosphorylation of the activation loop at Ser744/748. AII-induced PKD2 activation correlated with increased P-selectin surface expression. Furthermore, AII-regulated PKD2 activation is protein kinase C (PKC) alpha-dependent. Importantly, knock-down of either PKD2 or PKCalpha expression inhibited AII-mediated P-selectin surface expression and monocyte adhesion. Our findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of P-selectin surface expression via PKCalpha-dependent PKD2 activation could be an important mechanism in the early onset of AII-initiated endothelial adhesiveness.
"Thus, it appears that calcium indirectly activates RalGDS by binding to calmodulin, further activating RalA and WPB exocytosis. Thrombin and histamine stimulation, angiotensin II (Ge et al., 2007), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) (Matsushita et al., 2004), and ATP/ADP (Vischer and Wollheim, 1998) all cause increases in [Ca 2+ ] i via GPCR activation, which is a prime potentiator of exocytosis (Tse et al., 1997), but there is also evidence for extracellular calcium involvement. For example, influx of extracellular calcium via the T-type calcium channels Cav3.1 occurs upon stimulation of pulmonary microvascular ECs with thrombin, resulting in a procoagulant endothelial phenotype (Wu et al., 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has become increasingly clear that the accumulation of proteins in specific regions of the plasma membrane can facilitate cellular communication. These regions, termed signaling microdomains, are found throughout the blood vessel wall where cellular communication, both within and between cell types, must be tightly regulated to maintain proper vascular function. We will define a cellular signaling microdomain and apply this definition to the plethora of means by which cellular communication has been hypothesized to occur in the blood vessel wall. To that end, we make a case for three broad areas of cellular communication where signaling microdomains could play an important role: 1) paracrine release of free radicals and gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; 2) role of ion channels including gap junctions and potassium channels, especially those associated with the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization mediated signaling, and lastly, 3) mechanism of exocytosis that has considerable oversight by signaling microdomains, especially those associated with the release of von Willebrand factor. When summed, we believe that it is clear that the organization and regulation of signaling microdomains is an essential component to vessel wall function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) produce cardiovascular benefits by improving endothelial function. Endothelial cells store von Willebrand factor (vWF) in cytoplasmic Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). We examined whether LC n-3 PUFAs regulate WPB degranulation using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were incubated with or without 75 or 120 µM docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid for 5 days at 37 °C. WPB degranulation was stimulated using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and this was assessed by immunocytochemical staining for vWF. Actin reorganization was determined using phalloidin-TRITC staining. We found that PMA stimulated WPB degranulation, and that this was significantly reduced by prior incubation of cells with LC n-3 PUFAs. In these cells, WPBs had rounded rather than rod-shaped morphology and localized to the perinuclear region, suggesting interference with cytoskeletal remodeling that is necessary for complete WPB degranulation. In line with this, actin rearrangement was altered in cells containing perinuclear WPBs, where cells exhibited a thickened actin rim in the absence of prominent cytoplasmic stress fibers. These findings indicate that LC n-3 PUFAs provide some protection against WBP degranulation, and may contribute to an improved understanding of the anti-thrombotic effects previously attributed to LC n-3 PUFAs.
"Perhaps, though the local ET-1 expression may be reduced, its effects on the endothelial release of prostanoids mediated by ET B may be increased in femoral veins during exercise. However, an increase in ET-1 production or its release from the Weibel-Palade Bodies    cannot be discarded in femoral veins taken from animals exposed to exercise that were challenged with high Ang II concentrations. It is possible that higher concentrations of ET-1 may paradoxically reduce the Ang II responses in femoral veins through the activation of ET B . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The control of blood flow during exercise involves different mechanisms, one of which is the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to exercise-induced blood flow redistribution. Moreover, although angiotensin II (Ang II) is considered a potent venoconstrictor agonist, little is known about its effects on the venous bed during exercise. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the Ang II responses in the femoral vein taken from sedentary and trained rats at rest or subjected to a single bout of exercise immediately before organ bath experiments. Isolated preparations of femoral veins taken from resting-sedentary, exercised-sedentary, resting-trained and exercised-trained animals were studied in an organ bath. In parallel, the mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 (ppET-1), as well as the ETA and ETB receptors, was quantified by real-time PCR in this tissue. The results show that, in the presence of L-NAME, Ang II responses in resting-sedentary animals were higher compared to the other groups. However, this difference disappeared after co-treatment with indomethacin, BQ-123 or BQ-788. Moreover, exercise reduced ppET-1 mRNA expression. These reductions in mRNA expression were more evident in resting-trained animals. In conclusion, either acute or repeated exercise adapts the rat femoral veins, thereby reducing the Ang II responses. This adaptation is masked by the action of locally produced nitric oxide and involves, at least partially, the ETB- mediated release of vasodilator prostanoids. Reductions in endothelin-1 production may also be involved in these exercise-induced modifications of Ang II responses in the femoral vein.
Lei Zhou, Pengfei Cui, Shengqiang Zhao, Taiyang Ye, Yan Li, Jin Peng, Gengming Niu, Dezheng Zhao, Huiyan Zeng
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