[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), endovascular infections, pneumonia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were once confined largely to hospitals, other health care environments, and patients frequenting these facilities. Since the mid-1990s, however, there has been an explosion in the number of MRSA infections reported in populations lacking risk factors for exposure to the health care system. This increase in the incidence of MRSA infection has been associated with the recognition of new MRSA clones known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). CA-MRSA strains differ from the older, health care-associated MRSA strains; they infect a different group of patients, they cause different clinical syndromes, they differ in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, they spread rapidly among healthy people in the community, and they frequently cause infections in health care environments as well. This review details what is known about the epidemiology of CA-MRSA strains and the clinical spectrum of infectious syndromes associated with them that ranges from a commensal state to severe, overwhelming infection. It also addresses the therapy of these infections and strategies for their prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the published data for the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The estimated incidence of MRSA CAP is 0.51-0.64 cases per 100,000. We identified 74 articles reporting data on 114 patients. Influenza like symptoms was reported in 41% of patients. Pneumonia improved in 59 (54.1%) out of 109 patients; 49 (44.5%) out of 110 patients died. The duration of hospitalisation was 38.1+/-24.9 and 8.3+/-11.7 days, respectively. The duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 18.9+/-13.6 and 6.8+/-9.7 days, respectively. 76 strains carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The univariate analysis showed that multi-organ failure (p<0.001), leukopenia (p<0.001), admission to ICU (p<0.001), mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), use of aminoglycosides after culture results (p<0.001), shock (p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.001), influenza like symptoms (p = 0.008), disseminated intravascular coagulation (p = 0.042) and rash (p = 0.04) were the factors associated with death.
European Respiratory Journal 06/2009; 34(5):1148-58. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only recently necrotizing pneumonia was defined as a specific disease entity that is caused by a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain and is frequently preceded by an influenza infection. Necrotizing pneumonia is characterized by a sudden onset and rapid worsening of symptoms, leukopenia, airway hemorrhages, severe respiratory failure and a high mortality rate. Despite clear epidemiological data, the function of PVL in necrotizing pneumonia has been controversially discussed due to conflicting results from different disease models. Furthermore, there are many proposed mechanisms how a viral infection could facilitate and interact with a bacterial superinfection. In this review, we summarize current data from 43 clinical cases and results from various infection models on necrotizing pneumonia. We discuss the contribution of S. aureus PVL and a preceding influenza infection and present a concept of the pathogenesis of necrotizing pneumonia.
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 09/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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