Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants

Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749, Republic of Korea.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 3.9). 06/2008; 153(3):699-705. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.09.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.040mgL(-1))>Cd (0.095mgL(-1))>Pb (0.489mgL(-1))>Zn (0.572mgL(-1)). The EC50 for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63microgL(-1). The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC50 of 0.788microlL(-1)) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide.

Download full-text


Available from: Young-Seok Han, Jun 20, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r(2)=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2013; 260C:1042-1049. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.07.006 · 4.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) based on Ulva pertusa spore release was conducted in 3 phases for the identification of the major toxicants in effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) and the receiving water in an adjacent stream. The toxicity of the final effluent (FE), as compared with raw wastewater, and primary and secondary effluent, showed a greater change over 12-monthly sampling events and appeared to have impacts on the toxicity of the downstream water with a significant correlation (r 2 = 0.89, p < 0.01). In Phase I, toxicity characterization indicated that cations were likely to be the responsible toxicants for the FE. In Phase II, cations such as Cu, Ni, and Zn were found in the FE at higher concentrations than the EC 50 concentrations determined for the standard corresponding metals. When the concentrations of each metal in the FE samples were plotted against the respective toxicity units, only zinc showed a statistically significant correlation with toxicity (r 2 = 0.86, p < 0.01). In Phase III, using spiking and mass balance approaches, it was confirmed that Zn was the major toxicant in the effluent from the WTP. Following a change in the Fenton reagent used, to one with a lower Zn content, the toxicity of the FE greatly decreased in subsequent months. The TIE developed here enabled the toxicity of FEs of the WTP to be tracked and for Zn, originating from a reagent used for Fenton treatment, to be successfully identified as the key toxicant. The TIE method based on U. pertusa demonstrated utility as a low cost and simple tool to identify the risk factors for industrial effluents and provided information on regulatory control and management.
    04/2015; 3. DOI:10.3389/fenvs.2015.00002
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present investigation involves the use of green marine macroalgae,U. pertusa, as a tool for bioassay of heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc) prevalent in most industrial wastewaters. This is the first report of its kind wherein both, sporulation as well as spore release, is investigated synchronously. The EC10 and EC50 values obtained were also compared with toxicity norms of waste water quality criteria in Korea and global permissible limits. Based on variability it could be stated that the sporulation test was more reliable than the spore release test. The cosmopolitan presence ofUlva spp. makes the applicability of both these tests prominent as effective diagnostic tools for detecting pollution in metal polluted waters. KeywordsBioassay–Heavy metal–Spore release–Sporulation– Ulva pertusa
    05/2009; 1(1):24-31. DOI:10.1007/BF03216460