Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants

Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749, Republic of Korea.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 4.14). 06/2008; 153(3):699-705. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.09.001
Source: PubMed


A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.040mgL(-1))>Cd (0.095mgL(-1))>Pb (0.489mgL(-1))>Zn (0.572mgL(-1)). The EC50 for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63microgL(-1). The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC50 of 0.788microlL(-1)) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide.

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    • "The taxon Ulva is a promising bioindicator due to its sensitivity to various toxic metals and organic compounds [12] [13] [14]. According to Han et al. [15] [16], visual inspection of Ulva reproduction based on a change in thallus color leads to similar or better results compared with those from conventional bioassays including Microtox and D. magna acute toxicity testing, and the toxicity test standard (ISO/DIS 13308) based on reproduction inhibition of Ulva pertusa is in the process of registration. Different species likely have different sensitivities to toxicity-causing substances; thus, a battery of bioassays is generally recommended for toxicity assessment [7] [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r(2)=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2013; 260C:1042-1049. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.07.006 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pollutants have a dramatic ecological impact on aquatic environment and in particular the dwelling flora and fauna. This study focused on use of a new effortless approach to detect water pollution viz.Ulva growth bioassay. Several different water samples including a) wastewater obtained from a plating industry; b) stream water from five streams in Incheon viz. Gongchon, Jangsu, Hagik, Gulpo and Gyesan stream were investigated for their toxicity to the green marine macroalga,Ulva pertusa. Growth ofU. pertusa showed concentration-dependent response to plating effluents, proving to be a suitable end point for estimating the wastewater toxicity. Comparison of the results obtained using conventional chemical assays and theUlva bioassay coincided with each other in identifying the most polluted stream water out of the five streams tested.
    Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences 05/2009; 1(1). DOI:10.1007/BF03216461
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to establish the effect of salinity on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) to Ulva pertusa, with inhibition of spore release used as the endpoint. The optimal salinity for maximal spore release for U. pertusa was found to be between 20 and 40 psu. Comparisons between toxicity of metals, as measured by EC50, was shown to be in the descending order of Cu>Cd>Pb=Zn, which is similar to the toxicity of metals to algae, in general. When salinity was decreased from 30 to 20 psu, the EC50 values for Cd toxicity to the inhibition of spore release in U. pertusa decreased from 261 to 103 g·L−1, whereas increased salinity from 30 to 40 psu increased the EC50 from 261 to 801 g·L−1. Similarly, EC50 values for Cu toxicity were 52 g·L−1 at 20 psu, 99 g·L−1 at 30 psu, and 225 g·L−1 at 40 psu, and for Zn toxicity were 720 g·L−1, 1,074 g·L−1 and 1,520 g·L−1, at 20, 30 and 40 psu, respectively. In contrast, no salinity dependent change in EC50 values was apparent for Pb, with no significant differences in EC50 values at under the three different salinity regimes. In general, lower salinity (20 psu) induced a significant decrease in percent spore release of U. pertusa as estimated by a decrease in EC50 values, while higher salinity (40 psu) reduced the toxicity of metals as shown by an increase EC50 values. These findings enable one to predict that any additional increase in pollution status would result in a pronounced reduction in the distribution of U. pertusa in brackish and estuarine waters.
    Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences 03/2012; 4(1). DOI:10.1007/s13530-011-0107-0
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