[Left atrium diameter: a simple echocardiographic parameter with high prognostic value in heart failure].
ABSTRACT Left atrium diameter (LAD) is a very simple and easy parameter to obtain by echocardiography. It is influenced by systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction and by the coexistence of mitral regurgitation. We evaluated LAD as a predictor of prognosis (2 year mortality) in a heart failure (HF) population admitted to an outpatient HF unit. We compared LAD (mm/m2) with other echocardiographic parameters (left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters [mm/m2], mitral regurgitation, degree of diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary artery pressure).
We studied 368 patients (73% men; mean age [standard deviation]: 65.2  years; 60% of ischemic etiology). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography was 32.3% (13.1%). The majority of patients were in NYHA (New York Heart Association) class II (48%) or III (43%).
Two years mortality was 20.6%. In the univariate analysis LAD (p < 0.001), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (p < 0.001), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (p = 0.003), the degree of mitral regurgitation (p = 0.002) and the pattern of diastolic dysfunction (p = 0.004) showed a significant relationship with 2 years mortality, but not left ventricular ejection fraction and pulmonary pressure. In the echocardiographic multivariate analysis, only LAD remained significantly associated with mortality. In the multivariate analysis including important clinical parameters such as age, sex, etiology, time lapsed since symptoms onset, NYHA functional class, and the presence of diabetes, hypertension and atrial fibrillation, LAD remained as independent predictor of 2 years mortality. Patients with LAD less than 25 mm/m2 have a 10.9% mortality, whereas those with LAD equal or greater than 25 mm/m2 have a 30.1% mortality (p < 0.001).
LAD was a good predictor of 2 years mortality, better than other echocardiographic parameters in patients of our outpatient HF unit and was independent of strong clinical parameters.
SourceAvailable from: Okechukwu Ogah[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the prevalence of echocardiographically determined left ventricular systolic dysfunction in asymptomatic hypertensive subjects seen in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Echocardiography was performed in 832 consecutive hypertensive subjects referred for cardiac evaluation over a three-year period. Data were obtained in 832 subjects (50.1% women) aged 56.0 ± 12.7 years (men 56.9 ± 13.3 years, women 55.0 ± 12.0 years, range 15-88). The prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) was 18.1% in the study population (mild LVSD = 9.6%, moderate LVSD = 3.7% and severe LVSD = 4.8%). In a multivariate analysis, male gender, body mass index and LV mass were the predictors of LVSD. Significant numbers of hypertensive subjects in this study had varying degrees of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Early introduction of disease-modifying drugs in these patients, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers may retard or prevent the progression to overt heart failure.11/2011; 22(6):297-302. DOI:10.5830/CVJA-2010-063
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity is paradoxically associated with survival in patients with heart failure (HF). Our objective was to assess whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and long-term survival is associated with HF etiology (ischemic vs. non-ischemic) in a cohort of ambulatory HF patients. METHODS: BMI and survival status after a median follow-up of 6.1years (IQR 2.2-7.8) were available for 504 patients (73% men; median age 68years [IQR 58-74]). Fifty-nine percent of patients had ischemic etiology. Median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 30% (IQR 23-39.7%). Most patients were in NYHA functional class II (51%) or III (42%). Patients were divided into four groups according to BMI: low weight (BMI<20.5kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 20.5 to<25.5kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 25.5 to<30kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI≥30kg/m(2)). RESULTS: Mortality differed significantly across the BMI strata in non-ischemic patients (log-rank p<0.0001) but not in ischemic patients. Using normal weight patients as a reference, hazard ratios for low weight, overweight, and obese patients were 2.08 (1.16-3.75, p=0.014), 0.88 (0.54-1.43, p=0.60), and 0.49 (0.28-0.86, p=0.01), respectively, for non-ischemic patients and 1.19 (0.48-2.97, p=0.71), 0.88 (0.61-1.27, p=0.48), and 0.96 (0.66-1.41, p=0.85), respectively, for ischemic patients. After adjusting for age, sex, NYHA functional class, LVEF, co-morbidities, and treatment, BMI remained an independent predictor of survival in non-ischemic patients. CONCLUSION: Over long-term follow-up of ischemic and non-ischemic HF, the obesity paradox was only observed in patients with non-ischemic HF.International journal of cardiology 12/2011; DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.11.022 · 6.18 Impact Factor