Iron trafficking inside the brain.
ABSTRACT Iron, an essential element for all cells of the body, including those of the brain, is transported bound to transferrin in the blood and the general extracellular fluid of the body. The demonstration of transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) more than 20 years ago provided the evidence for the now accepted view that the first step in blood to brain transport of iron is receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin. Subsequent steps are less clear. However, recent investigations which form the basis of this review have shed some light on them and also indicate possible fruitful avenues for future research. They provide new evidence on how iron is released from transferrin on the abluminal surface of BCECs, including the role of astrocytes in this process, how iron is transported in brain extracellular fluid, and how iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. We propose that the divalent metal transporter 1 is not involved in iron transport through the BCECs. Instead, iron is probably released from transferrin on the abluminal surface of these cells by the action of citrate and ATP that are released by astrocytes, which form a very close relationship with BCECs. Complexes of iron with citrate and ATP can then circulate in brain extracellular fluid and may be taken up in these low-molecular weight forms by all types of brain cells or be bound by transferrin and taken up by cells which express transferrin receptors. Some iron most likely also circulates bound to transferrin, as neurons contain both transferrin receptors and divalent metal transporter 1 and can take up transferrin-bound iron. The most likely source for transferrin in the brain interstitium derives from diffusion from the ventricles. Neurons express the iron exporting carrier, ferroportin, which probably allows them to excrete unneeded iron. Astrocytes lack transferrin receptors. Their source of iron is probably that released from transferrin on the abluminal surface of BCECs. They probably to export iron by a mechanism involving a membrane-bound form of the ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin. Oligodendrocytes also lack transferrin receptors. They probably take up non-transferrin bound iron that gets incorporated in newly synthesized transferrin, which may play an important role for intracellular iron transport.
Article: TNAP and EHD1 Are Over-Expressed in Bovine Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells after the Re-Induction of Blood-Brain Barrier Properties[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although the physiological properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are relatively well known, the phenotype of the component brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) has yet to be described in detail. Likewise, the molecular mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance of the BBB are largely unknown. Proteomics can be used to assess quantitative changes in protein levels and identify proteins involved in the molecular pathways responsible for cellular differentiation. Using the well-established in vitro BBB model developed in our laboratory, we performed a differential nano-LC MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS study of Triton X-100-soluble protein species from bovine BCECs displaying either limited BBB functions or BBB functions re-induced by glial cells. Due to the heterogeneity of the crude extract, we increased identification yields by applying a repeatable, reproducible fractionation process based on the proteins' relative hydrophobicity. We present proteomic and biochemical evidence to show that tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and Eps15 homology domain-containing protein 1(EDH1) are over-expressed by bovine BCECs after the re-induction of BBB properties. We discuss the impact of these findings on current knowledge of endothelial and BBB permeability. Copyright: ß 2012 Deracinois et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This research was funded by the Ministère de la Recherche et de l'Enseignement Supérieur. The mass spectrometry facilities used for this study were funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the Fonds d'Industrialisation des Bassins Miniers (FIBM), the Ministère de l'Education Nationale, de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche and the Université d'Artois. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.PLoS ONE 10/2012; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iron is utilized by several proteins as cofactor for major biological processes. However, iron may also harm cells by catalyzing the generation of free radicals and promoting oxidative stress. Acquisition, transport, utilization and storage of iron are tightly controlled to meet physiological needs and prevent excessive accumulation of the metal within cells. Plasma transferrin has been known for years as a central player in iron metabolism, assigned to circulate iron in a soluble, non-toxic form and deliver it to the erythron and other tissues. Recent data uncovered an additional role of transferrin as an upstream regulator of hepcidin, a liver-derived peptide hormone that controls systemic iron traffic. Here, we review basic features of iron metabolism, highlighting the function of transferrin in iron transport and cellular iron uptake. We further discuss the role of hepcidin as an orchestrator of systemic iron homeostasis, and the mechanisms underlying hepcidin regulation in response to various physiological cues. Emphasis is given on the role of transferrin on iron-dependent hepcidin regulation. Transferrin exerts a crucial function in the maintenance of systemic iron homeostasis as component of a plasma iron sensing system that modulates hepcidin expression. Proper expression of transferrin and hepcidin are essential for health, and disruption of their regulatory circuits is associated with iron-related disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Transferrins: Molecular mechanisms of iron transport and disorders.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2011; 1820(3):188-202. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Article: 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 expression during brain ischemia contributes to cell death mediated by NF-κB/RelA acetylation at Lys310.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms responsible for increasing iron and neurodegeneration in brain ischemia are an interesting area of research which could open new therapeutic approaches. Previous evidence has shown that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through RelA acetylation on Lys310 is the prerequisite for p50/RelA-mediated apoptosis in cellular and animal models of brain ischemia. We hypothesized that the increase of iron through a NF-κB-regulated 1B isoform of the divalent metal transporter-1 (1B/DMT1) might contribute to post-ischemic neuronal damage. Both in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in neuronally differentiated SK-N-SH cells exposed to oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD), 1A/DMT1 was only barely expressed while the 1B/DMT1 without iron-response-element (-IRE) protein and mRNA were early up-regulated. Either OGD or over-expression of 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 isoform significantly increased iron uptake, as detected by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, and iron-dependent cell death. Iron chelation by deferoxamine treatment or (-)IRE DMT1 RNA silencing displayed significant neuroprotection against OGD which concomitantly decreased intracellular iron levels. We found evidence that 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 was a target gene for RelA activation and acetylation on Lys310 residue during ischemia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the 1B/DMT1 promoter showed there was increased interaction with RelA and acetylation of H3 histone during OGD exposure of cortical neurons. Over-expression of wild-type RelA increased 1B/DMT1 promoter-luciferase activity, the (-)IRE DMT1 protein, as well as neuronal death. Expression of the acetylation-resistant RelA-K310R construct, which carried a mutation from lysine 310 to arginine, but not the acetyl-mimic mutant RelA-K310Q, down-regulated the 1B/DMT1 promoter, consequently offering neuroprotection. Our data showed that 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 expression and intracellular iron influx are early downstream responses to NF-κB/RelA activation and acetylation during brain ischemia and contribute to the pathogenesis of stroke-induced neuronal damage.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e38019. · 4.09 Impact Factor