Host plant and latitude-related diapause variation in Rhagoletis pomonella: a test for multifaceted life history adaptation on different stages of diapause development.
ABSTRACT Variation in the overwintering pupal diapause of Rhagoletis pomonella appears to adapt sympatric populations of the fly to seasonal differences in the fruiting times of their host plants, generating ecological reproductive isolation. Here, we investigate what aspects of diapause development are differentially affected (1) by comparing the propensities of apple vs. hawthorn-infesting host races of R. pomonella to forgo an initially deep diapause and directly develop into adults, and (2) by determining the chronological order that R. pomonella races and sibling species break diapause and eclose when reared under standardized environmental conditions. The results imply that factors affecting initial diapause depth (and/or differential mortality during the prewintering period) and those determining the timing of diapause termination or rates of post-diapause development are both under differential selection and are to some degree genetically uncoupled in flies. The modular nature of diapause life history adaptation in Rhagoletis suggests that phenology may involve multiple genetic changes and represent a stronger ecological barrier separating phytophagous specialists than is generally appreciated.
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ABSTRACT: Sympatric speciation has become increasingly accepted in the past decade, as a result of new models substantiating its plausibility and new evidence that the conditions specified by the models are met in many natural populations. Retrospective phylogenetic and population genetic signatures of sympatric speciation have also been derived, and these are beginning to be tested. This new work has helped increase the acceptance of sympatric speciation as a plausible process, although it remains difficult to show conclusively that specific pairs of taxa have speciated through sympatric processes alone. It might be time for a re-evaluation of the geographical classification of speciation modes in favor of one based primarily on evolutionary mechanismsTrends in Ecology & Evolution 08/2001; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The timing of when to initiate reproduction is an important transition in any organism's life cycle. There is much variation in flowering time among populations, but we do not know to what degree this variation contributes to local adaptation. Here we use a reciprocal transplant experiment to examine the presence of divergent natural selection for flowering time and local adaptation between two distinct populations of Mimulus guttatus. We plant both parents and hybrids (to tease apart differences in suites of associated parental traits) between these two populations into each of the two native environments and measure floral, vegetative, life-history, and fitness characters to assess which traits are under selection at each site. Analysis of fitness components indicates that each of these plant populations is locally adapted. We obtain striking evidence for divergent natural selection on date of first flower production at these two sites. Early flowering is favored at the montane site, which is inhabited by annual plants and characterized by dry soils in midsummer, whereas intermediate (though later) flowering dates are selectively favored at the temperate coastal site, which is inhabited by perennial plants and is almost continually moist. Divergent selection on flowering time contributes to local adaptation between these two populations of M. guttatus, suggesting that genetic differentiation in the timing of reproduction may also serve as a partial reproductive isolating barrier to gene flow among populations.Evolution 01/2007; 60(12):2466-77. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hybridization is frequent in many organismal groups, but its role in adaptation is poorly understood. In sunflowers, species found in the most extreme habitats are ancient hybrids, and new gene combinations generated by hybridization are speculated to have contributed to ecological divergence. This possibility was tested through phenotypic and genomic comparisons of ancient and synthetic hybrids. Most trait differences in ancient hybrids could be recreated by complementary gene action in synthetic hybrids and were favored by selection. The same combinations of parental chromosomal segments required to generate extreme phenotypes in synthetic hybrids also occurred in ancient hybrids. Thus, hybridization facilitated ecological divergence in sunflowers.Science 09/2003; 301(5637):1211-6. · 31.20 Impact Factor