Zinc is an essential trace element present in all organs, tissues, fluids, and secretions of the body and it is widely distributed in the central nervous system, including the auditory pathway in synapses of the VIII nerve and in the cochlea. Zinc is an essential component of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and in certain enzymes and it is important for proper function of the immune system. Three possible mechanisms have linked zinc to tinnitus; cochlear Cu/Zn SOD activity, synaptic transmission, and depression. Evidences in the literature suggest prevalence rates of zinc deficiency in individuals with tinnitus from 2 to 69%, affecting elderly individuals more frequently. Four among five small studies indicate that administration of zinc has a beneficial effect on tinnitus but these results still have to be confirmed in clinical trials with larger samples using a cross-over design, validated tinnitus handicap questionnaires, measurements of tinnitus magnitude, and accessing the coexistence of other symptoms such as depression, phonophobia, and hyperacusis.
"Following is a discussion of each of the Tinnitus Formula ingredients to determine if any of them are effective treatments for tinnitus. Several studies assert that tinnitus patients might have lower-than-recommended blood levels of zinc (Ochi et al, 2003; Coelho et al, 2007). However, few placebo-controlled studies of zinc for tinnitus have been conducted. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Because chronic tinnitus is a condition that negatively impacts the quality of life of millions of people worldwide, a safe and effective treatment for tinnitus has been sought for millennia. However, effective treatments for tinnitus are greatly outnumbered by ineffective strategies, medications, devices, and surgeries that continue to be developed and promoted for the condition. Purpose: This article describes and critiques experimental, controversial, and potential treatments for chronic tinnitus. The purpose of this review is to provide information that should help patients and clinicians to select tinnitus treatment and management strategies most likely to be effective for each set of symptoms and circumstances. Research Design: PubMed and MEDLINE databases (National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine) were searched for the term tinnitus in articles published from 1940 to 2012. Other historical documents and publications were also reviewed as needed for particular topics. Study Sample: Studies included in this review were selected to represent a sampling of treatment methodologies that have been used for tinnitus. Data Collection and Analysis: Due to the heterogeneity of the studies reviewed, it was not appropriate to perform a meta-analysis. A selective review of the literature was conducted to summarize and critique published research results. Results: Most invasive treatments for tinnitus should be avoided because (1) at best, there is scant evidence that any of these treatments is effective, and (2) the risk to patients for most invasive procedures is much greater than the risk posed by the tinnitus perception. Effective and noninvasive treatments for tinnitus include acoustic therapy (which includes hearing aids and other types of environmental sound enrichment); cognitive-behavioral therapy; psychological counseling; hypnosis; biofeedback; and relaxation training. Over-the-counter or prescription medications may be used as needed to facilitate sleep and to reduce anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsiveness. Conclusions: Patients and clinicians should be especially cautious when considering invasive (and potentially harmful) treatments for tinnitus, which is a non-life-threatening symptom. Unless well-designed clinical trials verify that a tinnitus therapy demonstrates effectiveness above and beyond the placebo effect, consumers should be wary of medications, devices, or procedures promoted as a "cure." Although a true cure for tinnitus has not yet been found, effective and noninvasive tinnitus management strategies are available now. If progress is made to medically (or genetically) treat sensorineural hearing loss in humans, this breakthrough should also help to simultaneously reduce the perception of tinnitus for many patients.
"Tinnitus pharmacological therapies include a wide range of proposed medicaments. Among others, zinc,106 melatonin,75 lidocaine,107 botulinum toxin,108 antioxidants minerals, vitamins, ginkgo biloba, and other herbal remedies,109 have been considered in the treatment of tinnitus. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subjective tinnitus is a frequent, impairing condition, which may also cause neurotransmitter imbalance at the cochlea. Psychopharmacologic agents, although not being the first-line treatment for tinnitus, may modulate cochlear neurotransmission, thereby influencing the subjective tinnitus experience.
A comprehensive review of MEDLINE literature (from January 1990-January 2010) was performed searching for: "tinnitus", major classes of psychopharmacological agents, and psychiatric disorders. The most relevant clinical evidence is reported briefly along with a concise description of the main neurotransmitters purported to be involved in tinnitus, in order to provide the reader with a rational evaluation of tinnitus therapy with psychopharmacological agents.
Although strong methodological issues limit the reliability of the current results, a broad number of psychopharmacological agents have already been considered for tinnitus, both as candidate triggers or potential therapies.
Selected psychopharmacological drugs may play a role in the clinical management of this disorder. While the rational use of these agents for the treatment of tinnitus should not be overlooked, research should be undertaken on their neuromodulating actions at the cochlea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: El acufeno es una percepción auditiva «parásita» cuya naturaleza puede ser objetiva o subjetiva. En ocasiones se asocia a una hiperacusia. Cualquier acufeno obliga a realizar un proceso diagnóstico, destinado a determinar una posible etiología específica que obligue a un tratamiento adaptado a la enfermedad subyacente, pero también a eliminar una posible etiología grave. No obstante, la mayor parte de los acufenos son de naturaleza primaria. La evolución natural del síntoma «acufeno» debería llevar a la habituación y a dejar de prestarle atención. En la actualidad, en ausencia de un tratamiento curativo de los acufenos primarios, el tratamiento de los pacientes sigue siendo difícil y está sometido a numerosas incertidumbres e insuficiencias. Sin embargo, es esencial que se base en unas hipótesis fisiopatológicas consistentes y validadas de forma experimental. Una colaboración provechosa entre médicos con enfoques diferentes (otorrinolaringólogos, neurólogos, psiquiatras, psicólogos, audioprotesistas), agrupados en ocasiones en estructuras multidisciplinarias comparables a las dedicadas a los pacientes con dolor crónico (centros del dolor) debería instaurarse en el futuro. Los tratamientos actuales tienen como principal objetivo favorecer los procesos naturales de habituación. Tal es el caso de la terapia de reentrenamiento en tinnitus (TRT de Jastreboff y Hazell) y de las terapias cognitivas y conductuales. El papel de los tratamientos farmacológicos es limitado; la indicación de los fármacos que están autorizados para una indicación que incluya la palabra «acufenos» aún está por aclarar. En la actualidad hay muchas modalidades terapéuticas nuevas y prometedoras en vía de experimentación.
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