Article

Clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder at a Japanese gender identity disorder clinic

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.68). 02/2008; 157(1-3):315-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2007.07.022
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder (GID) at a GID clinic in Japan. A total of 603 consecutive patients were evaluated at the GID clinic using clinical information and results of physical and neurological examinations. Using DSM-IV criteria, 579 patients (96.0%) were diagnosed with GID. Four patients were excluded for transvestic fetishism, eight for homosexuality, five for schizophrenia, three for personality disorders, and four for other psychiatric disorders. Among the GID patients, 349 (60.3%) were the female-to-male (FTM) type, and 230 (39.7%) were the male-to-female (MTF) type. Almost all FTM-type GID patients started to feel discomfort with their sex before puberty and were sexually attracted to females. The proportion of FTM patients who had experienced marriage as a female was very low, and very few had children. Therefore, FTM-type GID patients seem to be highly homogeneous. On the other hand, various patterns of age at onset and sexual attraction existed among MTF patients. Among the MTF-type GID patients, 28.3% had married as males and 18.7% had sired children. Thus, MTF-type GID patients seem to be more heterogeneous.

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    • "In our clinical practice, FtM patients generally have unbudging gender orientation and consistent desire for sex reassignment whereas gender orientation and treatment-seeking behavior in MtF patients tend to be more easily influenced by their circumstances and situations than those in FtM patients. In fact, the proportion of FtM patients who had marriage as a female is very low, and very few had children, while MtF-type GID patients seem to be less homogeneous and have more confused gender orientation (Okabe et al., 2008). It has been recently suggested that some differences in personality traits exist between MtF and FtM subjects, e. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects.
    Psychiatry Research 08/2014; 220(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.07.069 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    • "Prevalence varies based on geographical location, with higher rates in Western Europe and America (0.001–0.002%) (4–6) compared to lower rates in Japan (0.0009%) (7). In most studies, male-to-female (MTF) GD cases tend to significantly outnumber female-to-male (FTM) cases (7). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual's psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender identity disorder was officially renamed "gender dysphoria" in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and has not been well-documented in Ireland. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy (HT) between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment during the study period. Results: The prevalence of GD in the Irish population was 1:10,154 male-to-female (MTF) and 1:27,668 female-to-male (FTM), similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were MTF and 59 were FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort, respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6 years (MTF) and 32.2 years (FTM). 22 of the patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on HT, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS). Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%). Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health, and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals is essential.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 06/2014; 5:87. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2014.00087
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    • "The review of the literature on the subject indicates that persons with GID have higher rates of psychological problems and psychiatric disorders, such as negative self-image, low self- esteem, adjustment disorders, depression, suicidality, and personality disorders (PDs) compared to normal controls [8–11]. Investigations in the field of GID have been mostly focused on the presence of psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, as well as risks for suicidal behavior and self-mutilation [8, 9, 11, 12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome.
    05/2014; 2014:809058. DOI:10.1155/2014/809058
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