Clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder at a Japanese gender identity disorder clinic.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.68). 02/2008; 157(1-3):315-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2007.07.022
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder (GID) at a GID clinic in Japan. A total of 603 consecutive patients were evaluated at the GID clinic using clinical information and results of physical and neurological examinations. Using DSM-IV criteria, 579 patients (96.0%) were diagnosed with GID. Four patients were excluded for transvestic fetishism, eight for homosexuality, five for schizophrenia, three for personality disorders, and four for other psychiatric disorders. Among the GID patients, 349 (60.3%) were the female-to-male (FTM) type, and 230 (39.7%) were the male-to-female (MTF) type. Almost all FTM-type GID patients started to feel discomfort with their sex before puberty and were sexually attracted to females. The proportion of FTM patients who had experienced marriage as a female was very low, and very few had children. Therefore, FTM-type GID patients seem to be highly homogeneous. On the other hand, various patterns of age at onset and sexual attraction existed among MTF patients. Among the MTF-type GID patients, 28.3% had married as males and 18.7% had sired children. Thus, MTF-type GID patients seem to be more heterogeneous.

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    ABSTRACT: Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.
    01/2014; 2014:463757. DOI:10.1155/2014/463757
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects.
    Psychiatry Research 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.07.069 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    Frontiers in Endocrinology 06/2014; 5:87. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2014.00087


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