Coagulopathy after cardiac surgery.

Anesthesia and analgesia (Impact Factor: 3.08). 12/2007; 105(5):1514; author reply 1514-5. DOI: 10.1213/01.ane.0000282775.38626.13
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter polymorphism has been associated with basal PAI-1 levels, with ischemic heart disease, and with adverse prognosis in critically ill patients. We hypothesized it might also influence the acute-phase levels of PAI-1 following coronary bypass surgery. In 111 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery, 4G/5G genotyping and serial plasma PAI-1 activity and antigen levels were prospectively measured before surgery, daily up to 72 h, and at discharge. The inflammatory reaction was additionally assessed by white cell count, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein levels. PAI-1 activity and antigen concentrations increased approximately two-fold after surgery, peaking at 48 hours. Carriers of the 4G-allele, compared with 5G/5G homozygotes, showed approximately 20% higher PAI-1 activity and antigen both preoperatively ( P = 0.007 and P = 0.035) and after surgery. White cell count, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein values did not differ significantly according to genotypic groups. In multivariate analysis, the 4G/5G genotype was the only significant modulator of postoperative PAI-1 activity (P = 0.003) and the main significant modulator of postoperative PAI-1 antigen (P = 0.013). No significant interaction was found between the effects of time and genotype on postoperative PAI-1. This indicates that the association between 4G/5G and acute-phase PAI-1 levels is secondary to the genotype-related difference of baseline PAI-1. Postoperative PAI-1 concentrations of patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery are higher in carriers of the 4G-allele than in 5G/5G homozygotes as a result of higher baseline values. Knowledge of 4G/5G status may be useful to predict acute-phase PAI-1 concentrations.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 01/2004; 16(3):149-54. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokine-mediated inflammation and coagulopathy may occur after cardiac surgery. In this study we investigated the temporal pattern of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression after cardiac surgery and its relation with PAI genotype, and obtained preliminary data regarding its relation to perioperative morbidity. The relative change in PAI-1 mRNA 1, 6, and 24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was measured from mononuclear cells in 82 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. DNA was analyzed for carriage of the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism. PAI-1 gene expression decreased after CPB in all patients. A larger reduction in PAI-1 gene expression was observed in homozygous carriers of the 5G allele. Homozygous carriers of the 5G allele were also more likely to receive transfusion of coagulation blood products. There was no relation between change in PAI-1 gene expression and duration of CPB. PAI-1 gene expression decreased over time after CPB. We found a link between PAI-1 genotype, PAI gene expression, and transfusion of coagulation products after cardiac surgery.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 07/2007; 104(6):1343-7, table of contents. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive bleeding (EB) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may lead to increased mortality, morbidity, transfusion requirements and re-intervention. Less than 50% of patients undergoing re-intervention exhibit surgical sources of bleeding. We studied clinical and genetic factors associated with EB. We performed a nested case-control study of 26 patients who did not receive antifibrinolytic prophylaxis. Variables were collected preoperatively, at intensive care unit (ICU) admission, at 4 and 24 hours post-CPB. EB was defined as 24-hour blood loss of > 1 l post-CPB. Associations of EB with genetic, demographic, and clinical factors were analyzed, using SPSS-12.2 for statistical purposes. EB incidence was 50%, associated with body mass index (BMI) < 26.4 (25-28) Kg/m2, (P = 0.03), lower preoperative levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (P = 0.01), lower body temperature during CPB (P = 0.037) and at ICU admission (P = 0.029), and internal mammary artery graft (P = 0.03) in bypass surgery. We found a significant association between EB and 5G homozygotes for PAI-1, after adjusting for BMI (F = 6.07; P = 0.02) and temperature during CPB (F = 8.84; P = 0.007). EB patients showed higher consumption of complement, coagulation, fibrinolysis and hemoderivatives, with significantly lower leptin levels at all postoperative time points (P = 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01). Excessive postoperative bleeding in CPB patients was associated with demographics, particularly less pronounced BMI, and surgical factors together with serine protease activation.
    Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 01/2007; 2:17. · 0.90 Impact Factor