Digital holographic microscopy reveals prey-induced changes in swimming behavior of predatory dinoflagellates.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 11/2007; 104(44):17512-7. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0704658104
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The shallow depth of field of conventional microscopy hampers analyses of 3D swimming behavior of fast dinoflagellates, whose motility influences macroassemblages of these cells into often-observed dense "blooms." The present analysis of cinematic digital holographic microscopy data enables simultaneous tracking and characterization of swimming of thousands of cells within dense suspensions. We focus on Karlodinium veneficum and Pfiesteria piscicida, mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, respectively, and their preys. Nearest-neighbor distance analysis shows that predator and prey cells are randomly distributed relative to themselves, but, in mixed culture, each predator clusters around its respective prey. Both dinoflagellate species exhibit complex highly variable swimming behavior as characterized by radius and pitch of helical swimming trajectories and by translational and angular velocity. K. veneficum moves in both left- and right-hand helices, whereas P. piscicida swims only in right-hand helices. When presented with its prey (Storeatula major), the slower K. veneficum reduces its velocity, radius, and pitch but increases its angular velocity, changes that reduce its hydrodynamic signature while still scanning its environment as "a spinning antenna." Conversely, the faster P. piscicida increases its speed, radius, and angular velocity but slightly reduces its pitch when exposed to prey (Rhodomonas sp.), suggesting the preferred predation tactics of an "active hunter."

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Optical measurements of the morphological and biochemical imaging of phytoplankton are presented. Employing quantitative phase imaging techniques, 3-D refractive index maps and high-resolution 2-D quantitative phase images of individual live phytoplankton are simultaneously obtained without exogenous labeling agents. In addition, biochemical information of individual phytoplankton including volume, mass, and density of individual phytoplankton are also quantitatively obtained from the measured refractive index distributions. We expect the present method to become a powerful tool for the study of phytoplankton.
    Journal of the Optical Society of Korea 12/2014; 18(6). DOI:10.3807/JOSK.2014.18.6.691 · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Better understanding of bacteria environment interactions in the context of biofilm formation requires accurate 3-dimentional measurements of bacteria motility. Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) has demonstrated its capability in resolving 3D distribution and mobility of particulates in a dense suspension. Due to their low scattering efficiency, bacteria are substantially difficult to be imaged by DHM. In this paper, we introduce a novel correlation-based de-noising algorithm to remove the background noise and enhance the quality of the hologram. Implemented in conjunction with DHM, we demonstrate that the method allows DHM to resolve 3-D E. coli bacteria locations of a dense suspension (>107 cells/ml) with submicron resolutions (<0.5 µm) over substantial depth and to obtain thousands of 3D cell trajectories.
    Optics Express 12/2014; 22(26). DOI:10.1364/OE.22.032119 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fitting scattering solutions to time series of digital holograms is a precise way to measure three-dimensional dynamics of microscale objects such as colloidal particles. However, this inverse-problem approach is computationally expensive. We show that the computational time can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more by fitting to a random subset of the pixels in a hologram. We demonstrate our algorithm on experimentally measured holograms of micrometer-scale colloidal particles, and we show that 20-fold increases in speed, relative to fitting full frames, can be attained while introducing errors in the particle positions of 10 nm or less. The method is straightforward to implement and works for any scattering model. It also enables a parallelization strategy wherein random-subset fitting is used to quickly determine initial guesses that are subsequently used to fit full frames in parallel. This approach may prove particularly useful for studying rare events, such as nucleation, that can only be captured with high frame rates over long times.
    Applied Optics 09/2014; 53(27). DOI:10.1364/AO.53.00G177 · 1.69 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014