Article

Recreational physical activity and risk of Parkinson's disease

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. <>
Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.63). 01/2008; 23(1):69-74. DOI: 10.1002/mds.21772
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. We prospectively followed 143,325 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2001 (mean age at baseline = 63). Recreational physical activity was estimated at baseline from the reported number of hours per week on average spent performing light intensity activities (walking, dancing) and moderate to vigorous intensity activities (jogging/running, lap swimming, tennis/racquetball, bicycling/stationary bike, aerobics/calisthenics). Incident cases of PD (n = 413) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and other risk factors. Risk of PD declined in the highest categories of baseline recreational activity. The RR comparing the highest category of total recreational activity (men > or = 23 metabolic equivalent task-hours/week [MET-h/wk], women > or = 18.5 MET-h/wk) to no activity was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.2; P trend = 0.07). When light activity and moderate to vigorous activity were examined separately, only the latter was found to be associated with PD risk. The RR comparing the highest category of moderate to vigorous activity (men > or = 16 MET-h/wk, women > or = 11.5 MET-h/wk) to the lowest (0 MET-h/wk) was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.0; P trend = 0.02). These results did not differ significantly by gender. The results were similar when we excluded cases with symptom onset in the first 4 years of follow-up. Our results may be explained either by a reduction in PD risk through moderate to vigorous activity, or by decreased baseline recreational activity due to preclinical PD.

0 Followers
 · 
75 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tai Chi Chuan steigert wirksam Gleichgewichtsleistungen und balanceabhängige Gangparameter. Neben einer aktivierenden Physiotherapie eingesetzt, erweitert Tai Chi Chuan die Palette der Trainingsoptionen bei Parkinson. Gleichgewicht und Gehfähigkeit können in frühen Stadien verbessert werden und die Sturzinzidenz sinkt, wie neuere Studien belegen.
    MMW Fortschritte der Medizin 05/2013; 155(8):52-54. DOI:10.1007/s15006-013-0641-6
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical exercise has been associated with neuroprotective effects in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. To examine the impact of physical activity on Parkinson's disease risk prospectively, we followed 43 368 individuals who provided extensive information on physical activity at baseline. We estimated hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional hazards regression. During an average of 12.6 years of follow-up, 286 incident Parkinson's disease cases were identified. In males, there was an inverse association with Parkinson's disease for total physical activity (hazard ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.87 for medium versus low level), for sum of household, commuting and leisure time exercise (hazard ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.85 for high versus low level), and for household and commuting physical activity specifically (hazard ratio 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.81 for >6 versus <2 h per week). No association was observed for leisure time exercise or occupational physical activity with Parkinson's disease, among either males or females. Meta-analysis of the present study and five previous prospective studies showed a pooled hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.78) for highest versus lowest physical activity level. Our results indicate that a medium level of physical activity lowers Parkinson's disease risk. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Brain 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/brain/awu323 · 10.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite advances in pharmacologic management, deficits in gait and gait-related activities remain persistent in Parkinson disease (PD), resulting in reduced safety and ADL independence. Alternative rehabilitative allied health approaches to the management of these problems, such as physical therapy or exercise training, are, therefore, important. We summarize literature on neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects of physical exercise. Next, we discuss data on the importance of exercise training with external rhythmic cues and summarize literature, demonstrating usefulness of goal-based exercise training with external cues on gait and gait-related activities in PD. The underlying mechanisms of cueing-induced neuroplasticity in PD are still unclear. It is also unclear whether cueing training can elicit neuroplastic effects comparable with those of regular exercise. Throughout this article, we maintain the following data-driven observations: (1) physical exercise can decrease the risk of later-developing PD, and evidence from animal studies suggests that neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra can be prevented through an exercise-induced increase in neurotrophic factors; (2) physical exercise has the potential to mitigate the effects of PD through an enhanced efficiency of dopamine transmission; (3) all modalities of cueing training can improve gait and gait-related activities in PD; (4) although no direct evidence for neuroprotective or neurorestorative effects of cueing training can be found, we predict that compensatory mechanisms play a role in cueing training, since externally triggered movements are thought to bypass the affected basal ganglia circuitry and activate the premotor cortex, cerebellum, and parietal cortex; and (5) learning-related improvements in motor function as a result of cueing training are likely to be accompanied by neuronal adaptations. The immediate effects of cueing training may relate to compensatory neuronal pathways that are not directly involved during regular exercise. We pose that external cueing facilitates the conditions for goal-based exercise training to improve gait and gait-related activities of patients with PD. The improved motor performance may result in increased exercise capacity and daily physical activity and as such indirectly affect neuroprotective and neurorestorative mechanisms comparable with regular exercise.
    Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation 01/2014; 30(1):46-57. DOI:10.1097/TGR.0000000000000005 · 0.14 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from