Histomorphological changes after renal X-ray arteriography using iodine and gadolinium contrast media in an ischemic porcine model.
ABSTRACT Gadolinium contrast media (Gd-CM) are regarded as non-nephrotoxic or considerably less nephrotoxic than iodine contrast media (I-CM), and have therefore come to be used as a substitute for I-CM in patients with renal insufficiency in a variety of radiographic examinations.
To investigate renal histomorphological changes caused by Gd-CM in comparison with I-CM after renal X-ray arteriography in an ischemic porcine model,and to evaluate these changes in relation to the nephrotoxicity of the CM used.
Test solutions: gadopentetate, gadodiamide, iohexol, gadobutrol,iopromide, iodixanol, mannitol, and saline. The experiments were performed on 152 animals. Each pig was randomized to receive one test solution injected into the balloon occluded(10 min) right renal artery. The kidneys were evaluated histomorphologically.The severity of histomorphological changes was graded subjectively: 15 minimal, 25 mild, 35 moderate, and 4=marked.
The main histological changes were 1) proximal tubular and glomerular necrosis,2) hemorrhage/congestion of the cortex, medulla, and glomeruli, 3) proximal tubular vacuolation, and 4) protein-filled tubules in the cortex and medulla. Necrosis and hemorrhage/congestion were more frequent after injections with gadopentetate, mannitol solution iso-osmotic to gadopentetate, and gadobutrol compared to all other groups(P<0.001). The degree of necrosis and hemorrhage/congestion was related to the degree of impairment of renal function, but inversely related to vacuolation and tubular protein filling.
In ischemic porcine kidneys, the histomorphological changes caused by Gd-CM are similar to those caused by I-CM. Vacuolation appears to be independent of the osmolality and viscosity of the CM, and does not seem to be an indicator of renal impairment. "High-osmolal" Gd-CM are more nephrotoxic than "low- and iso-osmolal" I-CM when compared in equal volumes of concentrations, resulting in equal X-ray attenuation.
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and NSF in renally impaired patients have a close relationship due to the frequent coincidence of vascular and renal pathologies, the relatively large amount of contrast media applied and the delayed excretion. The date of the first NSF cases described in literature falls into the development of multi-stationary MRA--an investigation that requested multiple bolus injections or one large bolus of the contrast agent. It is therefore easily understood that NSF was regarded initially as possible complication of MRA. A review on the history of MRA is presented and various techniques for MRA are described. While many neuroradiological indications can be solved by native MRA, most angiographic indications throughout the body rely on the application of intravenous contrast agents. The paper discusses options for alternative methods in vascular imaging and offers guidelines for patients with renal impairment. NSF must always be balanced versus the outcome of an investigation, respectively versus the outcome of a denied MRA. Moreover, in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a proper justification for a vascular investigation, neither CT angiography nor DSA should replace MRA. Restrictions in contrast media dose for CKD patients are mandatory and obviously reduce the risk of NSF. Gadolinium-based contrast agents with lower stability are now contraindicated in patients with reduced renal function. The role of blood pool agents is under evaluation. Since the awareness of the new disease grew over the last year, radiologists were able to reduce the number of newly diagnosed NSF cases by more careful consideration of contrast application and agent in renally impaired patients, which gives hope that NSF can be avoided by respecting some easy rules.European Journal of Radiology 06/2008; 66(2):213-9. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This experimental study examined the effects of resuscitation with Ringer's lactate (RL), 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4-HES), and the combination of RL and HES on renal function in hemorrhagic shock (HS). Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2198-3435 g were divided at random into four groups. HS was constituted by maintaining the mean arterial blood pressure at 30 mmHg and blood lactate at >4 mM/L. Subsequently, Group 1 (control) was not resuscitated, while the study rabbits' resuscitation was initiated with RL (Group 2), HES (Group 3), or the combination of RL and HES (Group 4). In all groups, the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were observed to be within normal limits, while the lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-1 microglobulin levels statistically significantly increased when time points were compared with beginning values (p<0.05). Furthermore, cystatin-C levels were observed to be increased after the HS (p<0.05), but returned to the normal level after resuscitation in all the study groups. Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels were increased in all the rabbits after HS (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences among the study groups after resuscitation (p>0.05). There were no differences in the histological imaging between the groups (p>0.05). The 6% HES (130/0.4) did not have any harmful effects on the kidney when it was used alone or in combination with crystalloid for resuscitation of HS in rabbits.Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery: TJTES 09/2009; 15(5):423-32. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Gadolinium chelates (GCs) have been traditionally considered as non-nephrotoxic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast materials. However, it has been suggested in some recent articles that GCs may have a nephrotoxic potential, but most of these reports are retrospective. However, the evaluated contrast agents, their doses, and the tests used to determine the kidney function were not consistent across studies. We aimed to investigate the effect of magnetic field and an MRI contrast agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine (GD), on renal functions in patients at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Material and Methods We designed a prospective case-control study with 2 age- and sex-matched groups of patients at high-risk for AKI (n=72 for each group). Patients in Group 1 received a fixed dose of (0.2 mmol/kg) GD-enhanced non-vascular MRI and patients in Group 2 received MRI without GD. Before the MRI and at 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after the MRI, biochemical tests, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio in spot urine, and early AKI biomarkers (cystatin C, N-Acetyl-Glucosaminidase [NAG], Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) were measured. Results Serum creatinine, albumin/creatinine ratio, and eGFR were not different between Group 1 and 2 (p>0.05). There were no significant changes in renal function tests and AKI biomarkers (∆serum creatinine, ∆albumin/creatinine ratio, ∆GFR, ∆cystatin C, ∆NAG, and ∆NGAL) for either groups 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after the procedures (p>0.05). Conclusions MRI without contrast agent and non-vascular contrast-enhanced (GD, 0.2 mmol/kg) MRI are not nephrotoxic procedures for patients at high risk for AKI.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2013; 19:942-8. · 1.22 Impact Factor