The effect of probiotics on respiratory infections and gastrointestinal symptoms during training in marathon runners

Institute of Biomedicine, Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.44). 09/2007; 17(4):352-63.
Source: PubMed


Heavy exercise is associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections. Strenuous exercise also causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In previous studies probiotics have reduced respiratory tract infections and GI symptoms in general populations including children, adults, and the elderly. These questions have not been studied in athletes before. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on the number of healthy days, respiratory infections, and GI-symptom episodes in marathon runners in the summer. Marathon runners (N = 141) were recruited for a randomized, double-blind intervention study during which they received Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or placebo for a 3-mo training period. At the end of the training period the subjects took part in a marathon race, after which they were followed up for 2 wk. The mean number of healthy days was 79.0 in the LGG group and 73.4 in the placebo group (P = 0.82). There were no differences in the number of respiratory infections or GI-symptom episodes. The duration of GI-symptom episodes in the LGG group was 2.9 vs. 4.3 d in the placebo group during the training period (P = 0.35) and 1.0 vs. 2.3 d, respectively, during the 2 wk after the marathon (P = 0.046). LGG had no effect on the incidence of respiratory infections or GI-symptom episodes in marathon runners, but it seemed to shorten the duration of GI-symptom episodes.

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    • "Hough y Gleeson, 2008; West et al., 2008; Barrett, Harahan, Brown, Zhang y Brown, 2007; Bishop y Gleeson, 2009; Clancy, Gleeson, Cox, Callister, Dorrington, D'Este, Pang, Pyne, Fricker y Henriksson, 2006; Cox, Pyne, Saunders, Callister y Gleeson, 2007; Cox, Pyne, Saunders y Fricker, 2008; Gleeson, 2005; Haaland, Sabljic, Baribeau, Mukovozov, y Hart, 2008; Kekkonen, Vasankari, Vuorimaa, Haahtela, Julkunen y Korpela, 2007; Nichols, 2007 "
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    ABSTRACT: Preliminary analysis of the relationship between the exercise and consumption of probiotics: A look at the Costa Rican consumer El estudio reportado analiza preliminarmente la relación entre el ejercicio y consumo de probióticos. La muestra fue intencionada y se desarrolló un perfil del consumidor y una ecuación ordinal logística. Las variables que explican el orden de importancia relativa en la frecuencia de ejercicio son: nivel de educación, consumo de probióticos, actividades que realiza para ejercitarse, medios que usa para informarse, edad y lugar de residencia. La hipótesis planteada se acepta preliminarmente dado el orden que en importancia relativa ocupa el consumo de probióticos en la ecuación. The study analyzes the consumption of probiotics and exercise. The sample was intentional and a profile of the consumer and ordinal logistic equation were developed. The variables that explain the frequency of exercise are: education, level of consumption of probiotics, activities undertaken to exercise, usage of the media for information, age and place of residence. The hypothesis proposed is accepted as preliminarily, given the relative importance in the frequency of exercise that consumption of probiotics occupies in the equation. INTRODUCCIÓN En 2009, la prevalencia mundial de la inactividad afectó a 17% de la población mundial, a pesar de haber ocurrido un mejoramiento en la disponibilidad del tiempo para ejercitarse, debido a los cambios en los medios de transporte y la reducción ocupacional relacionada con la actividad física (Kohl, Craig, Lamber, Inoue, Alkandari y Khalmeier, 2012). La relación entre el consumo de probióticos, los factores socioeconómicos, el ejercicio y el bienestar se está convirtiendo en una realidad para el consumidor urbano de estrato medio y superior de ingresos. En la medida que el ser humano próspera y pasa de una sociedad de carácter rural a una urbana, los problemas generados por el sedentarismo repercuten en su salud general, por lo que ya se observa que, de cada 100 mujeres mayores de 45 años, 77 presentan problemas de obesidad, al igual que 62 de cada 100 hombres, según datos de la Escuela de Medicina de la UCR; además, el 60% de la población de Costa Rica, padece de problemas de obesidad (Mercados & Tendencias, 2014). Lo interesante es que algunos consumidores costarricenses manifiestan que los probióticos se están convirtiendo en una forma de " mantenimiento físico " preventivo, al consumirlos en su búsqueda de salud y bienestar unidos al ejercicio físico.
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    • "No substantial difference in symptoms of atopy or asthma The marathon induced a significant eosinopenia (~60%) but had no effect on serum eosinophil cationic protein or total IgE. No differences in changes were seen between groups receiving LGG or placebo Kekkonen et al. (2007) "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Probiotic supplementation has traditionally focused on gut health. However, in recent years, the clinical applications of probiotics have broadened to allergic, metabolic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions. Gastrointestinal health is important for regulating adaptation to exercise and physical activity. Symptoms such as nausea, bloating, cramping, pain, diarrhoea and bleeding occur in some athletes, particularly during prolonged exhaustive events. Several studies conducted since 2006 examining probiotic supplementation in athletes or highly active individuals indicate modest clinical benefits in terms of reduced frequency, severity and/or duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness. The likely mechanisms of action for probiotics include direct interaction with the gut microbiota, interaction with the mucosal immune system and immune signalling to a variety of organs and systems. Practical issues to consider include medical and dietary screening of athletes, sourcing of recommended probiotics and formulations, dose-response requirements for different probiotic strains, storage, handling and transport of supplements and timing of supplementation in relation to travel and competition.
    European Journal of Sport Science 10/2014; 15(1):1-10. DOI:10.1080/17461391.2014.971879 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Probiotics obstruct diarrhoeal pathogens and can boost systemic immunity (Surwaicz, 2003). However the efficacy of supplemental probiotics to prevent G.I disturbance or respiratory tract infections after prolonged exercise has been questioned (Kekkonen et al., 2007). The use of prophylactic probiotics can be beneficial to athletes under conditions of environmental and physical stress however further evidence is required to validate the immune-protective effects of supplementation (West et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match-play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 Caffeine in doses of 3 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ≥ 400 mL. 30-60 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 10/2013; 12(2):211-224. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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