Origin and evolution of vertebrate ABCA genes: a story from amphioxus.
ABSTRACT Previous studies showed that the vertebrate ABCA subfamily, one subgroup of the ATP-binding-cassette superfamily, has evolved rapidly in terms of gene duplication and loss. To further uncover the evolutionary history of the ABCA subfamily, we characterized ABCA members of two amphioxus species (Branchiostoma floridae and B. belcheri), the closest living invertebrate relative to vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two species have the same set of ABCA genes (both containing six members). Five of these genes have clear orthologs in vertebrate, including one cephalochordate-specific duplication and one vertebrate-specific duplication. In addition, it is found that human orthologs of amphioxus ABCA1/4/7 and its neighboring genes mainly localize on chromosome 1, 9, 19 and 5. Considering that most of analyzed amphioxus genes have clear orthologs in zebrafish, we conclude these four human paralogous regions might derive from a common ancestral region by genome duplication occurred prior to teleost/tetrapod split. Therefore, the present results provide new evidence for 2R hypothesis.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, our understanding of the functioning of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) systems has been boosted by the combination of biochemical and structural approaches. However, the origin and the distribution of ABC proteins among living organisms are difficult to understand in a phylogenetic perspective, because it is hard to discriminate orthology and paralogy, due to the existence of horizontal gene transfer. In this chapter, I present an update of the classification of ABC systems and discuss a hypothetical scenario of their evolution. The hypothetical presence of ABC ATPases in the last common ancestor of modern organisms is discussed, as well as the additional possibility that ABC systems might have been transmitted to eukaryotes, after the two endosymbiosis events that led to the constitution of eukaryotic organelles. I update the functional information of selected ABC systems and introduce new families of ABC proteins that have been included recently into this vast superfamily, thanks to the availability of high-resolution three-dimensional structures.Essays in Biochemistry 09/2011; 50(1):19-42. DOI:10.1042/bse0500019 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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